The FactSage FSlead lead alloy database






-          A LIST OF all the unary, binary AND ternary SYSTEMS WHICH HAVE BEEN ASSESSED








CLICK ON “List of optimized systems and calculated binary phase diagrams.”.




The FactSage FSlead alloy database is directed primarily to the liquid state of lead-rich alloys, for which a large amount of assessed thermodynamic data is already available. It is based on relevant sub-systems from the old SGTE Solution Database, but now incorporating updates of those systems as well as many new published assessments. In particular, the assessed information contained in Dessureault ’s thesis [1] for the liquid phase of Pb-rich ternary systems has also been incorporated and a few new assessments have been carried out as part of the present work.    


While the optimized thermodynamic parameters contained in FSlead are intended primarily to provide a sound basis for calculations relating to lead production and refining, lead-rich solid phases are also included in the database. This makes possible the calculation of liquidus temperatures and solidification characteristics relevant to the casting of certain lead-rich alloys, although, because of the more limited amount of assessed data for solid ternary and higher-order phases available, the results should be treated with caution.


Please note that the FSlead database is a self-consistently evaluated database designed to be used independently of any other. Considerable caution must be exercised if it is used in conjunction with other FactSage databases.


The elements included as alloying components of lead are:


    Ag,    Al,    As,    Au,    Bi,    C,    Ca,    Cd,    Cu,    Fe,    Ga,    Ge,    Hg,    In,    

    Mn,    Ni,    O,    Pd,    S,    Sb,    Se,    Si,    Sn,    Sr,    Te,    Tl,    Zn,    Zr


With the exception of  Pb-Fe, Pb-Mn, Pb-S, Pb-Se, and Pb-Sr, the lead-containing binary systems are described over all ranges of composition and temperature, i.e. the assessed data provide a good description of the complete phase diagram and thermodynamic properties for the binary alloy system concerned.


Specific information on each alloy system can be obtained from the list of references supplied further below.


[1]   Y.Dessureault, Ph.D.Thesis, Ecole Polytech., Univ.Montreal, Nov.1993.  


Composition Ranges


As mentioned above, the database is intended primarily for calculations relating to

Pb-rich liquid alloys. However, some uses may involve relatively large concentrations of the alloying elements present. For this reason, the majority of the assessed binary systems in the LEAD alloy database are described over the entire composition range of the alloys involved. 


Ternary interaction parameters have been assessed for only a few Pb-rich Pb-A-B ternary systems.  The number of such assessed parameters is particularly limited in the case of solid phases. Many other ternary interactions in Pb-rich Cu-A-B solutions are estimated, using the appropriate models, from the assessed binary parameters for Pb-free A-B phases. Note that calculation of phase boundaries in higher-order systems may give very unreliable results when the ternary interaction parameters for the solid solutions are estimated by combination of such binary parameters.


Temperature Ranges


The database is generally valid for the approximate temperature range from room temperature to 1500 C.




In the assessments, the liquid phase has been described using a simple polynomial expression. The fcc Pb-rich phase has been described as a substitutional solid solution and several non-stoichiometric intermetallic phases have been described using a sublattice model.



Systems assessed


Assessed Binary Lead-containing Systems


  Pb-Ag    Pb-Al    Pb-As    Pb-Au    Pb-Bi    Pb-C    Pb-Ca    Pb-Cd    Pb-Cu    Pb-Fe    

  Pb-Ga     Pb-Ge    Pb-Hg    Pb-In    Pb-Mn    Pb-Ni    Pb-O    Pb-Pd    Pb-S    Pb-Sb   

  Pb-Se    Pb-Si     Pb-Sn    Pb-Sr    Pb-Zn    Pb-Zr



Assessed Ternary interaction Parameters in Pb-rich systems

(assessed parameters for certain phases only – click on “List of optimized systems and calculated binary phase diagrams” for details.)


  Pb-Ag-As    Pb-Ag-Au    Pb-Ag-Bi    Pb-Ag-Cu    Pb-Ag-S    Pb-Ag-Sb    Pb-Ag-Sn 

  Pb-Ag-Zn    Pb-As-Cu    Pb-As-Fe    Pb-As-Sn    Pb-As-Zn    Pb-Au-Bi    Pb-Au-Cu

  Pb-Au-In    Pb-Au-S    Pb-Au-Zn    Pb-Bi-Cu    Pb-Bi-Fe    Pb-Bi-S    Pb-Bi-Sn    

  Pb-Bi-Zn    Pb-Cu-S    Pb-Cu-Sb    Pb-Cu-Sn    Pb-Cu-Zn    Pb-Fe-S    Pb-Fe-Sb     

  Pb-S-Sb      Pb-S-Sn     Pb-S-Zn    Pb-Sb-Zn    Pb-Sn-Zn


Other assessed binary interaction parameters from which ternary interactions in Pb-rich systems are estimated (assessed parameters for certain phases only – click on “List of optimized systems and calculated binary phase diagrams” for details.)


  Ag-Au    Ag-Bi    Ag-Cu    Ag-Sb    Ag-Sn    Ag-Zn    As-Cu    As-Fe    As-Zn   

  Au-In    Au-Sn    Au-Tl    Au-Zn    Bi-Cu    Bi-Fe    Bi-In    Bi-Sb    Bi-Si    Bi-Sn    

  Bi-Tl    Bi-Zn    Cu-Fe    Cu-Sb    Cu-Sn    Cu-Tl    Cu-Zn    Fe-Sb    Fe-Zn    Ge-Tl     

  Sb-Zn    Sn-Zn





Pure Element Data


  A.T.Dinsdale, SGTE Data for Pure Elements, Calphad 15 (1991) 317-425


Binary Lead-containing Systems


  Pb-Ag:   H.L.Lukas, unpublished work, 1998; based on Zimmermann's thesis work.

  Pb-Al:    S.K.Yu, F.Sommer, B.Predel, Z.Metallkde. 87 (1996) 574-580.

  Pb-As:   Data supplied by M.Hamalainen (ca.1993), but corrected for SGTE lattice stabilities.

  Pb-Au:   J.P.Nabot, Thesis, Grenoble 1986.

  Pb-Bi:    D.Boa, I.Ansara, Thermochimica Acta  314 (1998) 79-86.

  Pb-C:     T.Chart, NPL, unpublished work (1987)

  Pb-Ca:   V.P.Itkin and C.B.Alcock, J. Phase Equilib. 1992,  pp.162-169.

  Pb-Cd:   W.Zakulski, Z. Moser, J.Phase Equilib. 16 (1995) 484.

  Pb-Cu:   I.Ansara, 1999.

  Pb-Fe:   A.T.Dinsdale, D.D.Gohil, NPL, unpublished work 1987.

  Pb-Ga:   I.Ansara, F.Ajersch, J. Phase Equilibria 12 (1991) 73-77.

  Pb-Ge:   P.Y.Chevalier, Thermochimica Acta 155 (1989) 227-240.

  Pb-Hg:   SGTE update 1998.

  Pb-In:    D.Boa, I.Ansara, Thermochimica Acta 314 (1998) 79-86.

  Pb-Mn:   P.J.Spencer, 2002.

  Pb-Ni:    SGTE Solution Database, A.T.Dinsdale, 2003.

  Pb-O:     P.J.Spencer, 2002.

  Pb-Pd:   G.Ghosh, from Metall. Trans. 30A (1999) 5-18.

  Pb-S:      P.J.Spencer, 2002.

  Pb-Sb:   H.Ohtani, K.Okuda, K.Ishida, J. Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 416-429.

  Pb-Se:    P.J.Spencer, 2002.

  Pb-Si:    R.W.Olesinski, G.J.Abbaschian, Bull.Alloy Phase Diags. 5 (1984) 271-273;

                  unassessed parameter inserted by ATD to make this phase less stable

  Pb-Sn:   H.Ohtani, K.Okuda, K.Ishida, J.Phase Equilibria 16 (1995) 416-429.

  Pb-Sr:    P.J.Spencer, 2002.

  Pb-Tl:    SGTE Solution Database, A.T.Dinsdale, 2003.

  Pb-Zn:   T.Jantzen, P.J.Spencer, Calphad 22 (1998) 417-434.

  Pb-Zr:    SGTE Solution Database, A.T.Dinsdale, 2003.


Ternary Interaction Parameters in Lead-rich Systems

(assessed parameters for certain phases only – click on “List of optimized systems and calculated binary phase diagrams” for details.)


  Ternary interaction parameters for the following systems have been derived using the 

  summarized information contained in the Ph.D thesis of  Y.Dessureault, Ecole

  Polytechnique, University of Montreal, November, 1993.


  Pb-Ag-As                    Pb-As-Zn                      Pb-Cu-S

  Pb-Ag-Au                   Pb-Au-Bi                      Pb-Cu-Sb  

  Pb-Ag-Bi                    Pb-Au-S                       Pb-Cu-Sn

  Pb-Ag-S                     Pb-Au-Sn                     Pb-Fe-S

  Pb-Ag-Sb                   Pb-Au-Zn                      Pb-Fe-Sb

  Pb-Ag-Sn                   Pb-Bi-Cu                      Pb-S-Sb

  Pb-Ag-Zn                    Pb-Bi-Fe                       Pb-S-Sn

  Pb-As-Cu                    Pb-Bi-S                        Pb-S-Zn

  Pb-As-Fe                    Pb-Bi-Sn                      Pb-Sb-Zn

  Pb-As-Sn                    Pb-Bi-Zn


Ternary interaction parameters for other Pb-contianing systems are from the following publications:


  Pb-Ag-Cu:   F.H.Hayes, H.L.Lukas, G.Effenberg, G.Petzow, Z. Metallkde, 77 (1986) 749-754.

  Pb-Au-In:     J.P.Nabot, Thesis, Grenoble 1986.

  Pb-Cu-Zn:    T.Jantzen, P.J.Spencer, CALPHAD 22 (1998) 417-434.

  Pb-Sn-Zn:    T.Jantzen, P.J.Spencer, CALPHAD 22 (1998) 417-434.



Other Binary Parameters

(assessed parameters for certain phases only – click on “List of optimized systems and calculated binary phase diagrams” for details.)


  Ag-Au:     M. Hassam, J. Agren, M.Gaune-Escard, J.P.Bros, Met.Trans. 21A (1990) 1877-1884.

  Ag-Bi:      H.L. Lukas, unpublished work, (1998), based on Zimmermann's original work.

  Ag-Cu:   Unpublished update by F.H. Hayes using unaries of A.T. Dinsdale, from:

                    F.H.Hayes, H.L.Lukas, G.Effenberg, G.Petzow, Z. Metallkde. 77  (1986) 749-754.

  Ag-Sb:     Oh, Shim, Lee and Lee, J. Alloys Compounds, 238 (1996) 155-66

  Ag-Sn:     Oh, Shim, Lee and Lee, J. Alloys Compounds, 238 (1996) 155-66; Data for fcc phase 

                       modified by A.T.Dinsdale due to change in fcc Sn unary data.

  Ag-Zn:      T. Gomez-Acebo, Calphad 22 (1998) 203-220.

  As-Cu:     M. Hämäläinen, private communication, 2004

  As-Fe:      P.J.Spencer, 1999.

  As-Zn:     SGTE, 2004.

  Au-In:      I. Ansara, J.P. Nabot, Thermochimica Acta 129 (1999) 89-97.

  Au-Sn:     Based on P.Y. Chevalier, Thermochimica Acta 130 (1988) 1-13: Modification of 

                    interaction params. by A.T,Dinsdale (April, 1998) due to changes in fcc and hcp Sn

  Au-Tl:      P.Y. Chevalier, Thermochimica Acta 155 (1989) 211-225.

  Au-Zn:     P.J. Spencer, 1995. (Crude description of Au-rich phase equilibria, but based on 

                       experimental thermodynamic data).


  Bi-Cu:      O.Teppo, J.Niemela, P.Taskinen, Report TKK-V-B50, Helsinki Univ.Tech., 1989.

  Bi-Fe:      T. Jantzen, GTT optimisation, 2003.

  Bi-In:       D.Boa, I.Ansara, Thermochimica Acta 314 (1998) 79-86.

  Bi-Sb:      H.Ohtani, K.Ishida, J.Electronic Mater. 23 (1994) 747-755.

  Bi-Si:       R.W.Olesinski, G.J.Abbaschian, Bull.Alloy Phase Diags. 6 (1985) 359-361.

  Bi-Sn:      H.Ohtani, K.Ishida, J.Electronic Mater. 23 (1994) 747-755.

  Bi-Tl:        SGTE, 2004.

  Bi-Zn:      C Girard, Thesis (Marseille 1985)

  Cu-Fe:      I.Ansara, A.Jansson, COST 507 (1998) ISBN 92-828-3902-8, p.165-167

  Cu-Sb:     SGTE Solution Database, 2004.

  Cu-Sn :    J.H.Shim, C.S.Oh, B.J.Lee, D.N.Lee, Z.Metallkde. 87 (1996) 205-212

  Cu-Tl:       P.Y.Chevalier, Thermochimica Acta 156 (1989) 383-392

  Cu-Zn:      M.Kowalski, P.J.Spencer, J.Phase Equilibria 14 (1993) 432-438

  Fe-Sb:      K. Hack, GTT, 2003.

  Fe-Zn:      SGTE Solution Database, 2004.

  Ge-Tl:       P Y Chevalier, Thermochimica Acta 155 (1989) p 227-240

  Sb-Zn:      L.A.Zabdyr, Calphad 21 (1997) 349-358.

  Sn-Zn:      S.Fries, H.L.Lukas, COST 507 (1998) ISBN 92-828-3902-8 p 288-289.