THE FACT FToxid OXIDE DATABASES

 

The FToxid solution database contains oxide solutions evaluated/optimized by the FACT group.  The FToxid compound database contains all stoichiometric solid and liquid oxide compounds evaluated/optimized by the FACT group to be thermodynamically consistent with the FToxid solution database. 

 

                                   Systems and Components

 

The FToxid databases contain data for pure oxides and oxide solutions of 20 elements (as well as for dilute solutions of S, SO4, PO4, H2O/OH, CO3, F, Cl and I in the molten (slag) phase.)  Not all binary and ternary sub-systems have been evaluated and optimized, nor are all composition ranges covered. Sub-systems which have not been evaluated and optimized have been assumed ideal or have been approximated. The sub-systems and composition ranges which have been evaluated and optimized are described in the following. The most accurate calculations will be obtained in or near these sub-systems and composition ranges.

(1) Major oxide components:  Al2O3, CaO, FeO, Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2

All major oxide components have been fully optimized and evaluated together at all compositions. All available data for binary, ternary and quaternary sub-systems have been fully optimized [2004, 2020, 2025, 2028, 2030, 2031, 2032, 2050, 6009, 6020].

(2) Systems containing MnO, Mn2O3, CoO, NiO, PbO, ZnO with the major oxide components Al2O3, CaO, FeO, Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2.

Most binary and many ternary sub-systems among these components (with the exception of Mn2O3) and between these components and the major oxide components have been evaluated and optimized. Particularly in the composition region of fayalite slags, extensive optimizations have been carried out [2002, 2008, 2012, 2015, 2018, 2019, 2023, 2024, 2025, 2026, 2027, 2051, 6013, 6016, 6021, 6026, 6028, 6033, 6046, 2085, 2089].  With Mn2O3, evaluations/optimizations have been performed only for the system MnO-Mn2O3-FeO-Fe2O3-SiO2 [2036, 2037, 2038, 2040, 2091]. With NiO, the system CaO-MgO-NiO-SiO2 has recently been re-optimized. [2063, 2066, 2067, 2092, 2102, 2103].

(3) (i) Systems containing CrO and Cr2O3 but not containing SiO2.

The system Al2O3, CaO, CoO, CrO, Cr2O3, FeO, Fe2O3, MgO, NiO, ZnO (of particular interest in hot corrosion) has been extensively optimized over most composition regions where data are available.  The system MnO-Mn2O3-FeO-Fe2O3-CrO-Cr2O3 has been partially evaluated/optimized [2010, 2029, 2035, 2040, 6031].

     (ii) Systems containing CrO and Cr2O3 with the major oxide components

           (Al2O3, CaO, FeO, Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2).    

When Cr is present, all available data have been fully optimized for the Al2O3-CaO-CrO-Cr2O3-SiO2 system and roughly optimized for the CrO-Cr2O3-MgO-SiO2 system  [2010, 2011, 2013, 2025, 6008, 2056].

(4) Systems containing As2O3, Cu2O, SnO

 

Data have been optimized with the major oxide components (Al2O3, CaO, FeO, Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2)  only over limited composition ranges, generally for SiO2-rich slags and in the composition region of fayalite slags  [4007, 4008, 4010, 6019].

 

(5) Systems containing TiO2 and Ti2O3

 

When Ti is present, available data for the group of components Al2O3, CaO, FeO, MgO, MnO, SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Ti2O3, TiO2 have been evaluated, but these data are limited.

 

In the presence of Ti, the database has been developed only for reducing conditions.  That is, Fe3+ is not evaluated in any of the phases.  The database for the solid phases (ilmenite, pseudobrookite, rutile, titania spinel, magneli phases) is of good quality and reproduces a large amount of data very well [2009, 2014, 2033, 2034, 2040, 2041].  The liquid phase is generally well modeled for binary systems, but for ternary and higher-order systems is only estimated from the model due to lack of any experimental data  [2005, 2009, 2014, 2059].

 

(6) Systems containing ZrO2

 

Recently unary ZrO2, and all binary, ternary and high order systems of the Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2-ZrO2 system were completely reoptimized [2108, 2109, 2110]. Several new binary and ternary compounds were included. Quaternary Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-ZrO2 solutions (including all four ternary sub-systems) were also optimized. Fe2O3-ZrO2 and MnO-ZrO2 systems were also optimized roughly. Best calculations, therefore, will be obtained in the Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2-ZrO2 and Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-ZrO2 systems with relatively low Fe(III) and Mn oxides.

 

(7) Systems containing B2O3

 

In the presence of B2O3, for the system  Al2O3-CaO-MgO-BaO-SiO2-B2O3-Na2O

all available data have been recently re-evaluated and re-optimized (for FactSage 6.0) for the Al2O3-B2O3-CaO-MgO-BaO-SiO2 system including all ternary sub-systems and for the B2O3-Na2O-SiO2 system [2044, 2055, 2045, 2046].

 

(8) The GeO2- SiO2 system

 

GeO2 has not been evaluated simultaneously with any component except SiO2.

The GeO2- SiO2 system has been evaluated over the entire composition range [2022].

 

 

 

(9) Systems containing Na2O and K2O

 

The systems Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2 and K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 have been re-evaluated and re-optimized [2047], as has the system Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 [2046]. The binary systems Na2O-X and K2O-X have been evaluated/optimized for X = Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2, and the liquid solution is assumed ideal for X = CaO, MgO and MnO.  This is intended for evaluation of the effect of Na2O and K2O on equilibria between liquid slag and iron/steel. The Na2O-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system has recently been optimized completely [2072, 2087, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016], and the addition of small amount of CaO and MgO in this system can be calculated reasonably well. However, only rough estimation can be made for the liquidus in multicomponent Na2O- and K2O-containing systems that are far from the optimized subsystems mentioned above.

 

Na was added to the melilite, monoxide and clino-pyroxen solid solutions.

 

(10) Systems containing BaO

 

The system BaO-Al2O3-B2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 has recently been optimized [Adarsh Shukla, Ph.D. Thesis, École Polytechnique de Montréal].  The systems BaO-MnO and BaO-CaO-MnO have been optimized for calculating BaO behavior in CaO-SiO2-MnO slags for ferromanganese production.

 

(11) Systems containing P2O5

 

For the system P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-BaO- FeOx-MnO-Na2O, all binary P2O5-containing subsystems have been evaluated and optimized. In addition, the key subsystems CaO-MgO-P2O5, CaO-SiO2-P2O5, CaO-Al2O3-P2O5 and CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 have been optimized and the subsystems Na2O-CaO-P2O5, Na2O-MgO-P2O5 and Na2O-SiO2-P2O5 have been approximately evaluated. This can be used for evaluation of the effect of P2O5 on equilibria among liquid slag, iron/steel and gas (solution FeLQ from the FTmisc database should be used for liquid iron/steel).

 

Liquidus calculations for P2O5-containing systems that substantially deviate from the optimized subsystems mentioned above may be not accurate.

[2074, 2078, 2079, 2080].

(12) Binary systems Al2O3-Re2O3 (Re = Rare earth: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) [2001].

(13) Oxyfluoride system Ca,Mg,Na,Al,Si//O,F

All binary, ternary and higher order subsystems of the (Ca,Na,Al,Si//O,F) and (Ca,Mg,Al,Si//O,F) systems have been optimized. The database can accurately calculate phase equilibria up to more than 50% of fluorides. The calculations can be less accurate when both MgO and Na2O are present in high concentrations (> 20% each). The database can be used even for fluoride systems without oxides, but it is less accurate than the FTsalt database. [2076, 2081, 2082, 2088, 2090.]

(14) Solubilities of sulfide, fluoride, chloride, iodide, sulfate, carbonate and water/hydroxide in dilute solution in the liquid/glass oxide phase

 

Solubilities of gaseous species such as S, F, Cl, I, C and H have been modeled and optimized for composition regions where data are available. For details see the description of FToxid-SLAGA, FToxidSLAGB, etc. by clicking on “Description of solutions” in this menu [2007, 2017, 2042, 2043].

 

(15) Oxy-sulfide systems up to high sulfide concentrations – sometimes to pure sulfides.

For sulfide solubilities, a new model has been incorporated since FactSage 6.0 and all available data from low concentration to even pure sulfides (in some cases) have been re-evaluated and re-optimized.  This can be used for sulfide capacity calculations (slag/metal and slag/gas equilibrations) and also for phase diagram of oxy-sulfide systems.

[2039, 2060, 2061,2015, 2016]

 

 

                                         Phases

 

For complete descriptions of all solution phases, click on “Description of solutions” in this menu.

 

 

                                     The Liquid/Glass Solution

 

The liquid/glass phase contains all the components in the FToxid database.  The modified quasichemical model [1004, 1005, 1006, 1015, 1016, 1019, 1020, 1023] is used.  This model accounts for the very strong short-range-ordering present in these solutions.  The solubility of halides, sulfates, etc. is modeled with the modified Blander-Reddy model [2007, 2017], while the solubility of sulfides or fluorides is modeled with the Modified Quasichemical Model in the Quadruplet Approximation [2039].  See detailed descriptions of FToxid-SLAG, FToxid-OXFL and FToxid-ReAl by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                           

                                                Solid Solutions

 

Models have been developed and applied for the multicomponent solid solutions such as spinel, pyroxenes, melilite, olivine, willemite, etc.  These models take into account the mixing of various cations on crystallographically different sublattices.  Physically meaningful model parameters are introduced, normally representing the Gibbs energies for specific reactions of cation substitution, which are most important for a given solid solution.  This has made it possible to constrain parameters of the models based on the limited amount of available experimental data and to insure good predictability of the model extrapolations into multicomponent solutions.

 

 

Spinel (cubic)

For AB2O4-type spinel solutions containing Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Mg-Ni-Zn-O, for 2+ and 3+ oxidation states only, a complete evaluation and optimization at all compositions has been performed.  The distribution of cations over tetrahedral and octahedral sites, as well as vacancies on the octahedral sites (oxygen non-stoichiometry), are taken into account as follows: (Al,Co(II),Co(III),Cr(II),Cr(III),Fe(II),Fe(III),Mg,Ni(II),Zn)[Al,Co(II),Co(III),Cr(III), Fe(II),Fe(III),Mg,Ni,Zn,Vacancy]2O4.  (Experimental  equilibrium cation distributions were used along with the phase equilibrium data in the optimizations.)  See detailed description of FToxid-SpinA by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

[2010, 2019, 2020, 2024, 2025, 2028, 2029, 2030, 6008, 6009, 6013, 6016, 6020, 6021, 6029, 6031, 6033].

 

The same model has been used in a recent evaluation/optimization of cubic spinel solutions containing Mn(II)-Mn(III)-Mn(IV)-Fe(II)-Fe(III)-Cr(II)-Cr(III) over all compositions.  See detailed description of FToxid-SpinB by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2035, 2036, 2037, 2040]. 

 

Mn has also been evaluated as a component of (Fe,Mg,Mn)Al2O4-Al2O3 cubic spinels.  See detailed description of FToxid-AlSp by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [6026, 2054].

 

Cubic titania spinels (Fe,Mg,Mn)[Fe,Mn,Mn,Ti(III),Ti(IV),Al]2O4 are modeled as a separate phase. See detailed description of FToxid-TiSp by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2005, 2009, 2014, 2033, 2034].  The limited solubility of Al has been modeled and added in FactSage 6.0 [2041].

 

Calcium spinel, Ca(Cr,Fe)2O4, is modeled as a separate solution.  See detailed description of FToxid-CaSp by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2010].

 

Spinel (tetragonal)

This new phase has been added in FactSage 6.0.  This is low-temperature Mn3O4 dissolving Fe and Cr, stable below approximately 1445 K [2035, 2036, 2037, 2040].

 

Monoxide Solutions

Monoxide solid solutions are modeled for a large number of components.  In particular, the composition-temperature-PO2 relationships in wustite, FexO, are well reproduced.

See the detailed descriptions of FToxid-MeO_ by clicking on “Description of Solutions”  [2002, 2010, 2019, 2020, 2023, 2024, 2027, 2028, 2029, 2030, 2032, 2033, 2034, 2051, 6009, 6013, 6020, 6021, 6026, 6029, 6031].  In FactSage 6.0 the database has been updated, the former phases FToxid-MeO_ and FToxid-MONO have been combined into FToxid-MeO_, and Mn2O3 has been added as a solute. For FactSage 7.1, the solubility of Na2O in wustite was optimized.

 

Pyroxenes

Complete evaluations/optimizations at all compositions and temperatures have been performed for clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, protopyroxene and low clinopyroxene, taking account of the distribution of cations over the three cationic sublattices as follows:(Ca,Fe(II),Mg)[Mg,Fe(II),Fe(III),Al]{Al,Fe(III),Si}SiO6See detailed descriptions of FToxid-cPyr, FToxid-oPyr, FToxid-pPyr and FToxid-LcPy by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2020, 2031, 2032].

 

Clino- and proto-pyroxenes containing Ni and Zn have also been evaluated.  For FactSage 7.1, Na and Mn were added to clino-pyroxene. See detailed descriptions of FToxid-cPyr and FToxid-pPyr by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Feldspar

NaAlSi3O8 – NaFeSi3O8 – KAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8 – BaAl2Si2O8 solutionSee detailed description of FToxid-Feld by clicking on “Description of Solutions”

 

Rhodonite

MnSiO3 + (CaSiO3, CoSiO3, FeSiO3, MgSiO3 in dilute amounts).  See detailed description of FToxid-Rhod by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2027, 6026].  The former FToxid-MnPy phase has now been merged into FToxid-Rhod as these are the same phase (which does not have a pyroxene structure.)

 

Melilite

Complete evaluations/optimizations at all compositions and temperatures have been performed for the following melilite solutions, taking account of the distribution of cations over the cationic sublattices:  (Ca,Pb)2[Mg,Fe(II),Fe(III),Al,Zn]{Al,Fe(III),Si}2O7, (Ca,Na)2[Al]{Al,Si}2O7 and (Ca)2[Mg,Al,B]{Al,B,Si}2O7.

For FactSage 7.1, Ba and Ni were added to melilite. See detailed description of FToxid-Mel_ by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [6009, 6013, 6016, 6020, 6021, 2045].

 

Olivine

Complete evaluations/optimizations at all compositions and temperatures have been performed for olivine solutions, taking account of the distribution of cations over the cationic sublattices as follows:  (Ca,Fe,Mg,Mn,Co,Ni,Zn)[Ca,Fe,Mg,Mn,Co,Ni,Zn]SiO4.

See detailed description of FToxid-OlivA by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2018, 2020, 2027, 2031, 2032, 2038, 2040, 2063, 2066, 2092, 2103, 6016, 6026]. 

Evaluations/optimizations of (Mg,Cr)[Mg,Cr]SiO4 olivines have been performed.

See detailed description of FToxid-OlivB by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2040].

 

Wollastonite

CaSiO3 with MgSiO3, FeSiO3, MnSiO3 and BaSiO3 in solution..

See detailed description of FToxid-WOLL by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

See references [2027, 2032, 6026].

 

Ca2SiO4 Solutions

Alpha-prime (Ca,Ba)2SiO4 containing Mg, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and B in solution and alpha-Ca2SiO4 containing Mg, Fe, Mn, Ba and B in solution.

See detailed descriptions of FToxid-aC2S and FToxid-bC2S by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2015, 2027, 2032, 2047, 6009, 6013, 6016, 6020, 6021, 6026]. Improvements to the optimizations of solutions containing boron have been carried out for FactSage 6.0 [2045] and Ba was added for FactSage 7.0.

 

Solubility of Ca3P2O8 in alpha-Ca2SiO4 is modeled as a separate solution.  See detailed description of FToxid-C2SP by clicking on “Description of Solutions”.

 

Cordierite

Al4(Mg,Fe)2Si5O8 solid solution.  See detailed description of FToxid-Cord by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Mullite

Solid solution of non-stoichiometric mullite, Al6Si2O13, with B2O3 and Fe2O3 in solution: [Al,Fe]2[Al,Si,B,Fe][O,Va]5. See detailed description of FToxid-Mull by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2025, 2045, 2055, 2047, 6009, 6020].

 

Corundum

Al2O3-Cr2O3-Fe2O3 + (Mn2O3, Ti2O3 in dilute amounts) solid solution fully evaluated and optimized except when Ti2O3 is present. See detailed description of FToxid-CORU by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2010, 2025, 2035, 2037, 2040, 6008].

 

Bixbyite

Orthorhombic Mn2O3 + (Fe2O3, Cr2O3, Al2O3 in dilute amounts).  See detailed description of FToxid-Bixb by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2035, 2036, 2037, 2040].

 

Braunite

Non-stoichiometric Mn7SiO2 with excess Mn2O3. See detailed description of FToxid-Brau by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2038, 2040].

 

Garnets

Ca3(Cr,Al)2Si3O12See detailed description of FToxid-GARN by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Zincite

ZnO; with FeO, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, NiO, CoO in dilute solution.  See detailed description of FToxid-ZNIT by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2019, 6013, 6016, 6021].

 

Willemite

Zn2SiO4 with Fe2SiO4 and Mg2SiO4 in solution.  Distribution of cations over the two cationic sites is taken into account as follows:  (Zn,Fe(II),Mg)[Zn,Fe(II),Mg]SiO4.  See detailed description of FToxid-Will by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2018, 6016, 6021].

 

Pseudobrookite

FeTi2O5-Ti3O5-MgTi2O5-MnTi2O5Distribution of cations over the two cationic sublattices is taken into account as:  (Fe(II),Mg,Mn,Ti(III))[Ti(IV),Ti(III)]2O5.  See detailed description of FToxid-PSEU by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2005, 2009, 2014, 2033, 2034].

 

Rutile

TiO2 with Ti2O3, ZrO2 in dilute solution.  See detailed description of FToxid-TiO2 by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2005, 2009, 2014, 2033, 2034].

 

Ilmenite

FeTiO3-Ti2O3-MgTiO3-MnTiO3Distribution of cations over the two cationic sublattices is taken into account as:  (Fe(II),Mg,Mn,Ti(III))[Ti(IV),Ti(III)]O3. Also, Ti2O3-Al2O3 solutions dilute in Al2O3 have been evaluated.  See detailed description of FToxid-ILME by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2005, 2009, 2014, 2033, 2034].

 

Ca3Ti2O7-Ca3Ti2O6 solution

See detailed description of FToxid-CaTi by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Perovskite

Ca2Ti2O6-Ca2Ti2O5.  See detailed description of FToxid-PERO by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Quartz

SiO2-GeO2.  See detailed description of FToxid-Qrtz by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2022].

 

Monoclinic, Tetragonal and Cubic Zirconia

ZrO2 with Al2O3, CaO, FeO, MgO, MnO, TiO2 in dilute solution.  See detailed descriptions of FToxid-ZrOm, FToxid-ZrOt and Ftoxid-ZrOc by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Calcium Ferro-aluminate solutions

Ca2(Al,Fe)8SiO16

Ca(Al,Fe)12O19

Ca(Al,Fe)6O10

Ca(Al,Fe)4O7

Ca(Al,Fe)2O4

Ca2(Al,Fe)2O5

Ca3(Al,Fe)2O6

See detailed descriptions of FToxid-CAFS, -CAF6, -CAF3, -CAF2, -CAF1, -C2AF and

-C3AF  by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

PbO-ZnO solution

PbO-rich.  See detailed description of FToxid-PbO by clicking on “Description of Solutions.” [2012].

 

Pb3Ca2Si3O11-Pb5Si3O11 solution

 See detailed description of FToxid-PCSi by clicking on “Description of Solutions.” [2015, 6013].

 

Combeite solution (Na2,Ca)Na2(Ca,Na2)3CaSi6O18)

Na2Ca2Si3O9-based mineral. See detailed description of FToxid-NCSO by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Carnegieite

Non-stoichiometric high-temperature NaAlSiO4 dissolving excess SiO2, K, Fe and Ca. See a detailed description of FToxid-Carn by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2047].

 

Nepheline

Non-stoichiometric low-temperature NaAlSiO4 – KAlSiO4 solid solution, dissolving excess SiO2, Ca and Fe.  See a detailed description of FToxid-Neph by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2047].

 

KAlSiO4-HT

Non-stoichiometric high-temperature kalsilite, KAlSiO4, dissolving excess SiO2, Na and Ca.  See a detailed description of FToxid-KAlSiO4-HT by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

NaAlO2 and KAlO2

Non-stoichiometric low-temperature and high-temperature (Na)(Al,Fe)O2 with excess SiO2 and low-temperature and high-temperature KAlO2 with excess KAlSiO4.  See detailed descriptions of FToxid-NASl, FToxid-NASh, FToxid-KA_H and FToxid-KA_L by clicking on “Description of Solutions” [2047].

 

Aluminates of Sodium and Calcium

Na2(Na2,Ca)Al4O8

(Ca,Na2)Ca8Al6O18

See detailed descriptions of FToxid-C3A1 and -NCA2 by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

BaSiO3 and Ba3SiO5

Non-stoichiometric barium silicates dissolving calcium. See detailed descriptions of FToxid-BaSi and FToxid-M3Si by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Pseudo-wollastonite solution

CaSiO3-rich, dissolving BaSiO3.  See detailed description of FToxid-PsWo by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Merwinite solution

(Ca,Ba)3MgSi2O8, see detailed description of FToxid-Merw by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

[Ca,Ba]2[Ba,Ca]MgSi2O8

See detailed description of FToxid-C2BM by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

T-phase Ba2Ca(Ba,Ca)Si2O8

Ba3CaSi2O8 – Ba2Ca2Si2O8 solid solution. See detailed description of FToxid-BCSO by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Walstromite solution [Ca,Ba][Ba,Ca]CaSi3O9

BaCa2Si3O9-based mineral. See detailed description of FToxid-Wals by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Aluminates of Calcium and Barium

Ba8Al2O11 with Ca8Al2O11 in solution (Ba8Al2O11-rich)

Ba4Al2O7 with Ca4Al2O7 in solution (Ba4Al2O7-rich)

(Ca,Ba)3Al2O6 cubic phase

High-temperature BaAl2O4 with CaAl2O4 in solution (BaAl2O4-rich)

Low-temperature BaAl2O4 with CaAl2O4 in solution (BaAl2O4-rich)

CaAl2O4 with BaAl2O4 in solution (CaAl2O4-rich)

CaAl12O19 with BaAl12O19 in solution with magnetoplumbite structure (CaAl12O19-rich)

See detailed descriptions of FToxid-Ba8A, -Me4A, -Me3A, -MeAl, -BaAl, -CaAl and

-MeA6 by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Beta-alumina

Ba3Al44O69-BaAl10MgO17 solution. See detailed description of FToxid-bAlu by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

Borates of Calcium and Barium

BaB2O4 with CaB2O4 in solution (BaB2O4-rich)

CaB2O4 with BaB2O4 in solution (CaB2O4-rich)

BaB8O13 with CaB8O13 in solution (BaB8O13-rich)

See detailed descriptions of FToxid-BaB2, -MeB2 and -BaB8 by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

 

Phosphates of Calcium and Magnesium

(Ca,Mg)3P2O8

(Ca,Mg)3Mg3P4O16

(Mg,Ca)2P2O7

See detailed descriptions of FToxid-C3Pr, -C3Pa, -C3Pb, -M3Pa, -CMPc and

-M2Pa by clicking on “Description of Solutions.”

 

CaF2

Non-stoichiometric low-temperature and high-temperature CaF2 with excess CaO.  See detailed descriptions of FToxid-CaFh and FToxid-CaFl by clicking on “Description of Solutions”.

 

                               Stoichiometric Solid Oxides

Evaluated and optimized properties for 416 stoichiometric compounds are found in the FToxid compound database.  For a list, see “List of compounds and solutions.”