Systems in the 2014 version of the

Noble Metal Alloy Database

 

 

A further 17 binary systems and 8 ternary systems have been included in the SG2014 version of The Noble Metal Alloy Database. The total number of binary and ternary systems for which assessed thermodynamic data are available is now 223 and 130 respectively. As for the previous upgrade of the database, the new system content is due, in large part, to the use of three major sources of information, namely

 

-         Handbook of Ternary Alloy Phase Diagrams, eds. P. Villars, A. Prince, H.  

        Okamoto, ASM, 1997.

   -     Ternary Alloys, eds. G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vols.1-3, (1988,1990).

-         The calculation model for enthalpies of formation, due to X.-Q. Chen and

      R. Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised 

      Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Use of these resources has enabled the general scarcity of experimental thermodynamic information for many noble metal systems to be compensated, while retaining a reasonable level of reliability of the resulting assessments.

 

It is also emphasized, that the database is compatible with assessments for noble metal-containing systems, originating from work carried out within the framework of COST Action 531, Lead-Free Solders. This Action resulted in an Atlas of Phase Diagrams for Lead-Free Soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa,

J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, and J. Vizdal, published in 2008 by the European Science Foundation.

 

To allow completion of ternary alloy assessments, the data for relevant binary systems have been taken from the 2011 Version of the SGTE Solution Database. For nearly all of the new binary and ternary systems in this 2014 update, original assessment work was required. The newly included systems are listed in the System Information and References below.

 

It should be emphasized that experimental data for ternary alloy systems often relate to a single temperature and/or to a particular composition range.  In such cases, the derived ternary parameters may not be reliable for calculations over ranges of temperature and composition much outside the experimental ranges. Results from such calculations should be viewed with considerable caution.

 

 

 

 

 

 

General

 

The data in the noble metal alloy database originate from a collaboration between

 

             The Spencer Group Inc., Trumansburg, NY, USA and

             GTT-Technologies, Herzogenrath, Germany.

 

The database contains evaluated thermodynamic parameters for the noble metals

 

Ag,  Au,  Ir,  Os,  Pd,  Pt,  Rh,  Ru

 

alloyed amongst themselves and also, for individual noble metals, in alloys with the metals

 

Al,  As,  B,  Ba,  Be,  Bi,  C,  Ca,  Cd,  Ce,  Co,  Cr,  Cu,  Dy,  Fe,  Ge,  Hf,  In,  Mg, Mn,  Mo,  Nb,  Ni,  Pb,  Re,  Sb,  Si,  Sn,  Ta,  Tc,  Te,  Ti,  Tl,  V,  W,  Zn,  Zr.

 

The evaluated parameters in the Noble Metal Alloys Database are based on data collected from publications and internal project reports or have been assessed as part of the development of the database.

 

In only a few cases are the assessed parameters based on a large amount of experimental information. For many systems, very few, or even no thermodynamic measurements are available. This has necessitated use of published phase boundary information only, with a combination of estimated and optimized mixing parameters to provide a thermodynamic description of the systems concerned. For some inter-noble metal alloys, where complete ranges of solid and liquid solutions are observed, the descriptions should still be fairly reliable. For others, while a reasonable phase diagram description may have been obtained, the thermodynamic values (i.e. enthalpies and entropies) for the different phases may have large errors associated with them.

 

Specific information on each alloy system can be obtained from the list of references below.

 

Database Applications

 

Noble metals and their alloys have a wide variety of applications, and calculations of relevant phase equilibria in a particular case are important e.g. for optimizing suitable alloy compositions or predicting reaction products in chemically aggressive environments.

 

Some examples of noble metal alloy use are:

 

q  Jewelry and decoration

q  Electronic components; micro-electronic contact materials

q  Solders and brazes

q  Dental alloys

q  Fission products

q  Catalysts

q  New minority alloy components, e.g. in turbine alloys

q  Scientific equipment, e.g. thermocouples, crucibles, calorimeters

 

Because of their value, noble metal alloys undergo extensive recycling. For this reason, information on dilute ranges of impurity elements in precious metals is important with respect to different methods of refining. Among such methods are oxygen refining and some use of halogens. In such cases, the database should be used in conjunction with the SGTE Pure Substances Database to take into account relevant condensed and gaseous oxides and halides.

 

The database will often be used with one of the noble metals as major component, but in a number of applications, large concentrations of alloying elements are present. For this reason, and whenever possible, the assessed parameters in the noble metal alloys database cover the entire composition range of the alloys involved (see below for information on relevant ranges for specific alloys). Although ternary interaction parameters are now available for a large number of ternary systems, as stated above, caution must often be exercised in carrying out ternary calculations over wider ranges of temperature and composition. The information provided for a particular ternary should be read carefully before carrying out calculations for that system. In particular, it must be realized that calculation of phase boundaries in higher-order systems by combination of binary alloy data only may give very unreliable results.

 

In a binary system, if no assessed mixing parameters are available for a particular phase, the phase will be treated as ideal. Correspondingly, the properties of a ternary or higher-order phase will be calculated applying the appropriate models used in the database. This procedure may give useful results if the alloy compositions in question are close to a pure component or to a binary edge for which assessed data are available. However, results of calculations for other composition ranges should be treated with extreme caution. 

 

Composition Ranges

 

Most of the binary alloy systems have been assessed over the entire composition range. Ranges of composition accessible to ternary calculations are clarified by the ternary sections included with the phase diagram figures. 

 

Temperature Ranges

 

For binary alloys, the database is generally valid for the temperature range 300oC to 2500oC, although phase boundaries and thermodynamic properties measured at lower temperatures may not correspond to the equilibrium state of the alloy, even after very long annealing times. Ranges of temperature accessible to ternary calculations are clarified by the ternary sections included with the phase diagram figures.

 

Modeling

 

The database makes use of the SGTE Pure Element Data and, as such, is compatible with other SGTE Solution and Application Databases as well as the SGTE Pure Substance database.

 

In the assessments, the liquid phase has been described, in all but one case, using a simple substitutional solution model based on the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu polynomial expression. The exception is the Pd-Si system, for which an associated solution model has been used for the liquid phase. Some solid phases with narrow ranges of composition have been simplified to compounds with no compositional variation. Others have been modeled applying the compound energy formalism using several sublattices.

 

 

Authorship and Contacts

 

Ownership of the Noble Metal Alloy Database belongs to The Spencer Group.

 

For questions relating to the data, please contact Dr. Philip Spencer at The Spencer Group Inc. – Tel. (1)-607-387-4038;   FAX  (1)-607-387-4039,

or

Dr. Klaus Hack at GTT-Technologies – Tel. (49)-2407-59533;   FAX (49)-2407-59661.

 

 

DISCLAIMER

 

The Spencer Group Inc. and GTT-Technologies assumes no responsibility for the validity of results from a calculation using data from the noble metal alloy database and is not liable for any damage or loss, subsequential or otherwise, caused by the application of results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Binary Systems

(Systems in red have a noble metal component, those in blue are newly included)

 

Ag-Al     Ag-Au     Ag-B       Ag-Ba     Ag-Be     Ag-Bi     Ag-C     Ag-Ca     Ag-Cd       

Ag-Ce    Ag-Co     Ag-Cr     Ag-Cu     Ag-Fe    Ag-Ge    Ag-In      Ag-Ir      Ag-Mg    

Ag-Mn   Ag-Mo    Ag-Nb     Ag-Ni     Ag-Os    Ag-Pb    Ag-Pd     Ag-Pt      Ag-Rh    

Ag-Ru    Ag-Sb      Ag-Si      Ag-Sn     Ag-Ti     Ag-Tl     Ag-V      Ag-W      Ag-Zn    

Ag-Zr      

 

Al-As     Al-Au     Al-Bi     Al-Cr     Al-Ge     Al-In     Al-Ir     Al-Mg     Al-Pb    Al-Pt

Al-Ru     Al-Si     Al-Sn     Al-Ti     Al-Zn

 

As-Au     As-Pd     As-Pt

 

Au-B       Au-Be    Au-Bi    Au-Ce    Au-Co    Au-Cr     Au-Cu     Au-Fe    Au-Ge    

Au-Hf     Au-In     Au-Ir    Au-Mo    Au-Ni    Au-Pb     Au-Pd     Au-Pt     Au-Rh    

Au-Ru    Au-Sb     Au-Si    Au-Sn     Au-Ta    Au-Te     Au-Ti      Au-Tl     Au-Zn    

Au-Zr

 

B-Pt

 

Ba-Ru

 

Bi-Cu     Bi-Pb     Bi-Pd     Bi-Pt     Bi-Sb     Bi-Si     Bi-Sn     Bi-Zn

 

C-Ir     C-Os     C-Pb     C-Pd     C-Pt     C-Rh     C-Ru

 

Ca-Pd    Ca-Ru

 

Ce-Pt

 

Co-Cu     Co-Fe     Co-Ni     Co-Pd     Co-Pt     Co-Ru     Co-Sn

 

Cr-Cu     Cr-Ni     Cr-Pd     Cr-Pt     Cr-Rh     Cr-Ru    

 

Cu-Fe     Cu-Ge     Cu-In      Cu-Ir      Cu-Mg    Cu-Mn   Cu-Ni     Cu-Pb     Cu-Pd     Cu-Pt     Cu-Rh     Cu-Ru     Cu-Sb     Cu-Sn     Cu-Ti     Cu-Zn

 

Dy-Fe     Dy-Pt

 

Fe-Ir     Fe-Mn     Fe-Ni     Fe-Os     Fe-Pd     Fe-Pt     Fe-Rh     Fe-Ru     Fe-Si

 

Ge-Pt    Ge-Si

 

In-Pb     In-Pd     In-Pt     In-Rh     In-Sb     In-Sn     In-Zn

 

Ir-Ni     Ir-Os     Ir-Pd     Ir-Pt     Ir-Rh     Ir-Ru

 

Mg-Pd    Mg-Ru     Mg-Zn

 

Mo-Ni     Mo-Pd     Mo-Rh     Mo-Ru     Mo-Si     Mo-Tc

 

Nb-Pd

 

Ni-Pd     Ni-Pt     Ni-Ru     Ni-Si     Ni-Sn

 

Os-Pd     Os-Pt     Os-Re     Os-Rh     Os-Ru

 

Pb-Pd     Pb-Pt     Pb-Rh     Pb-Sb     Pb-Si     Pb-Sn     Pb-Zn

 

Pd-Pt     Pd-Re     Pd-Rh     Pd-Ru     Pd-Sb     Pd-Si     Pd-Sn     Pd-Tc     Pd-Ti    

Pd-V      Pd-Zn     Pd-Zr

 

Pt-Rh     Pt-Re     Pt-Ru     Pt-Sb     Pt-Si     Pt-Sn     Pt-Ta     Pt-Tc     Pt-Ti     Pt-W

Pt-Zr 

 

Re-Rh     Re-Ru

 

Rh-Ru     Rh-Sb     Rh-Si     Rh-Sn     Rh-Tc     Rh-Zr

 

Ru-Si     Ru-Tc     Ru-Zr

 

Sb-Si     Sb-Sn

 

Si-Sn

 

Sn-Zn

  

 

 

Ternary Systems

(Noble metal components are in red)

 

 

Ag-Al-Au          Ag-Al-Bi           Ag-Al-In           Ag-Al-Mg          Ag-Al-Pb         

Ag-Al-Si            Ag-Al-Sn          Ag-Al-Ti           Ag-Al-Zn

 

Ag-Au-Bi          Ag-Au-Co         Ag-Au-Cu         Ag-Au-Ge         Ag-Au-Ni

Ag-Au-Pb         Ag-Au-Pd         Ag-Au-Pt           Ag-Au-Sb         Ag-Au-Si         

Ag-Au-Sn         Ag-Au-Zn

 

Ag-Bi-Cu          Ag-Bi-Pb           Ag-Bi-Sn           Ag-Bi-Zn

 

Ag-Co-Pd

 

Ag-Cr-Pd

 

Ag-Cu-Fe         Ag-Cu-Ge          Ag-Cu-In          Ag-Cu-Mg           Ag-Cu-Mn

Ag-Cu-Ni         Ag-Cu-Pb          Ag-Cu-Sb          Ag-Cu-Sn            Ag-Cu-Ti             Ag-Cu-Zn

 

Ag-Fe-Mn        Ag-Fe-Ni           Ag-Fe-Pd           Ag-Fe-Si

 

Ag-Ge-Si

 

Ag-In-Pd           Ag-In-Sb          Ag-In-Sn

 

Ag-Ir-Pd

 

Ag-Mg-Zn

 

Ag-Ni-Sn  

 

Ag-Pb-Sb          Ag-Pb-Sn          Ag-Pb-Zn

 

Ag-Pd-Pt           Ag-Pd-Rh         Ag-Pd-Ru          Ag-Pd-Sn          Ag-Pd-Ti

 

Ag-Sb-Sn

 

Ag-Sn-Zn

 

 

Al-As-Au

 

Al-Au-Si          Al-Au-Sn          Al-Au-Ti

 

Al-Cr-Ru

 

 

Au-Bi-Sb          Au-Bi-Si          Au-Bi-Sn

 

Au-Co-Cu        Au-Co-Ni         Au-Co-Pd

 

Au-Cu-Ni         Au-Cu-Pb        Au-Cu-Sn

 

Au-Fe-Ni

Au-Ge-Si

 

Au-In-Pb          Au-In-Sb           Au-In-Sn

 

Au-Ir-Pd          Au-Ir-Pt

 

Au-Mo-Pd

 

Au-Ni-Pd          Au-Ni-Pt         Au-Ni-Sn

 

Au-Pb-Si          Au-Pb-Sn

 

Au-Pd-Pt          Au-Pd-Rh           Au-Pd-Ru

 

Au-Pt-Rh           Au-Pt-Ru

 

Au-Sb-Si          Au-Sb-Sn

 

Au-Si-Sn

 

 

Co-Cu-Pd

 

Co-Fe-Pd

 

Co-Ni-Ru

 

 

Cr-Cu-Pd

 

Cr-Ni-Pd          Cr-Ni-Ru

 

 

Cu-Fe-Pd

 

Cu-Ni-Pd          Cu-Ni-Pt          Cu-Ni-Ru

 

 

Dy-Fe-Pt

 

 

Fe-Ir-Os          Fe-Ir-Ru          Fe-Ni-Pd          Fe-Ni-Pt          Fe-Ni-Ru

 

 

Ir-Pd-Pt           Ir-Pd-Rh          Ir-Pt-Ru          Ir-Rh-Ru

 

 

Mo-Ni-Pd

 

Mo-Pd-Rh          Mo-Pd-Ru          Mo-Pd-Si           Mo-Pd-Tc

 

Mo-Rh-Ru          Mo-Rh-Tc

 

 

Ni-Pd-Si

 

 

Pb-Pd-Sn

 

 

Pd-Pt-Ru           Pd-Pt-Sn          Pd-Pt-Ti          Pd-Rh-Ru

 

 

Pt-Rh-Ru

 

 

 

Quaternary Systems

(Noble metal components are in red)

 

Au-Pd-Pt-Sn

 

System Information and References

 

Binary Systems

 

Ag-Al:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             S.S. Lim, P.L. Rossiter, J.W. Tibbals, Calphad 19 (1995) 131-142.

 

Ag-Au:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-B:    from SGTE2011;  Data for the Ag-B system are from an unpublished

               assessment by Korb (2004) supplied by GTT to SGTE in 2005. 

 

Ag-Ba:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              Thermodata (Grenoble) assessment, 2005.

 

Ag-Be:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Ag-Bi:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.              

 

Ag-C:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              J. Korb, GTT-Technologies, 2004.

 

Ag-Ca:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               Thermodata (Grenoble) assessment, 2005.

 

Ag-Cd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005

 

Ag-Ce:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

Ag-Co:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is based on

                I. Karakaya, W.T. Thompson, Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams, 7(3), Jun.1986.

 

Ag-Cr:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               J. Korb, GTT-Technolgies, 2004.

 

Ag-Cu:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

               compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

               Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Fe:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               J. Korb, GTT-Technologies, 2004.

 

Ag-Ge:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               P.Y. Chevalier, Thermochimica Acta 130 (1988) 25-32.

 

Ag-In:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Ir:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              P.J. Spencer, 1998; based on I. Karakaya and W.T. Thompson,

              Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 7 (1986) 359.

 

Ag-Mg:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               P.J. Spencer, July 1998.

Ag-Mn:  from SGTE2011

 

Ag-Mo:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Ag-Nb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Ag-Ni:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Os:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              P.J. Spencer, 1998; based on I. Karakaya and W.T. Thompson,

              Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 7 (1986) 361.

 

Ag-Pb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Pt:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              P.J. Spencer, 1998, based on I.Karakaya and W.T.Thompson,

              Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 8 (1987) 334.

Ag-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              P.J. Spencer, 1998, based on I.Karakaya and W.T.Thompson,

              Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 7 (1986) 362.

 

Ag-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              P.J. Spencer, 1998, based on I. Karakaya and W.T. Thompson,

              Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 7 (1986) 367.

 

Ag-Sb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Si:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             P.Y. Chevalier, Thermochimica Acta 113 (1988) 33-41.

 

Ag-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Ti:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              P.J. Spencer, July 1998, based on J.Murray, Bull.Alloy Phase

              Diagrams 4 (1983) 178.

 

Ag-Tl:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              H.L.Lukas, reassessment based on Zimmerman thesis, MPI, Stuttgart, 1976.

 

Ag-V:    The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Ag-W:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Ag-Zn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Zr:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              P.J. Spencer, 1998; based on I.Karakaya and W.T.Thompson,

              J. Phase Equilibria 13 (1992) 143.

 

Al-Au:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              J L Murray, H Okamoto, T B Massalski, Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams

              8 (1987) 20-30; modified by A.T. Dinsdale to take account of SGTE unary data 

              and to prevent high temperature stability of the fcc phase; further amendment

              by GTT of DHF(AlAu) from  –61571.07 J/mol to -61731.07 J/mol.

 

Al-Ir:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             T. Abe, C. Kocer, M. Ode, H. Murakami, Y. Yamabe-Mitarai, K. Hashimoto,

             H. Onodera, CALPHAD 32 (2008) 686-692.

 

Al-Pt:  from SGTE2011

 

Al-Ru: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             P.J. Spencer (2008), based on work from Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005 and

             R. Suess, A. Watson, L.A. Cornish, D.N. Compton,

             J. Alloys and Compounds, 2008.

 

As-Au: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             P.J. Spencer, June 1998.

 

As-Pd: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2004;  approximate phase diagram and

             validity range for XPd > 0.7 only.

 

As-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2004;  validity range for XPt > 0.3 only.

 

Au-B:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

Au-Be:  P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013, simplified description.

 

Au-Bi:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              C. Servant, E. Zoro, B. Legendre, CALPHAD 30 (2006) 443-448

 

Au-Ce:  P.J.Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Au-Co:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Au-Cr:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               P.J. Spencer, June 1998.

 

Au-Cu:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               B. Sundman, S.G. Fries, W.A. Oates, Calphad 22 (1998) 335-354:

               Assessment with only parameters for the disordered phases.

 

Au-Fe:   P.J.Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Au-Ge:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               P.Y. Chevalier, Thermochimica Acta 141 (1989) 217-226.

 

Au-Hf:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

           Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

Au-In:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Au-Ir:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

             Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

             Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

             Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Au-Mo:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

 

Au-Ni:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              J. Wang, X.-G. Lu, B. Sundman, X. Su, CALPHAD 29 (2005) 263-268.

 

Au-Pb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Au-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Au-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              P.J. Spencer, 1994.

 

Au-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               P.J. Spencer, June 1998.

 

Au-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               P.J. Spencer, June 1998.

 

Au-Sb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Au-Si:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             P.Y. Chevalier (THERMODATA), private communication to SGTE, July, 1998.

 

Au-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Au-Ta:  P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013, simplified description.

 

Au-Te:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              Y. Feutelais, D. Mounai, J.R. Didry, B. Legendre, J.Phase Equilib.

              15 (1994) 380: Data for the AuTe2 phase modified by A.T.Dinsdale.

 

Au-Ti:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              K. Hack, GTT-Technologies,1996: based on J.Murray, Bull.Alloy Phase

              Diagrams 4 (1983) 278. Au2Ti modified to stabilize to room temperature.

 

Au-Tl:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             P.Y. Chevalier, Thermochimica Acta 155 (1989) 211-225.

 

Au-Zn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Au-Zr:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              X. Su, F Yin, Z Li and Y Shi, Z. Metallkd., 91 (2000) 744-747.

 

B-Pt:     P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013, simplified description.

 

Ba-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

Bi-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Bi-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

 

C-Ir:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

           GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

C-Os: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

           GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

C-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

            GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

C-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

           GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

C-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

            GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

 

C-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Ca-Pd:   P.J.Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Ca-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

Ce-Pt:    P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013, simplified description.

 

Co-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              G. Ghosh, C. Kantner, G.B. Olson, J.Phase Equilibria 20 (1999) 295-308.

 

Co-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              P.J. Spencer, December 2002.

 

Co-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Co-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

 

Cr-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

 

Cr-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               P.J. Spencer, 1998

 

Cr-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Cr-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

Cu-Ir:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Cu-Mn:  from SGTE2011

 

Cu-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Cu-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009, incorporating enthalpies of formation 

              from S.V. Meschel, O.J. Kleppa, J. Alloys and Compounds 350 (2003) 205-212,

              and using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R. Podloucky (CALPHAD 30

              (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised Miedema method in combination

              with ab initio results.

 

Cu-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Cu-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

 

Dy-Pt:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Fe-Ir:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

             Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

             Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

             Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Fe-Mn:  from SGTE2011

 

Fe-Os:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

              Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

              Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

              Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Fe-Pd:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               G. Ghosh, C. Kantner, G.B. Olson, J.Phase Equilibria 20 (1999) 295-308.

 

Fe-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2005.

 

Fe-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2005.

 

Fe-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

Ge-Pt:   P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013, simplified description.

 

In-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

In-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2004; based on calorimetric results for solid 

             alloys from W.Vogelbein, M.Ellner, B.Predel, Thermochim.Acta

             44 (1981) 141-149, and for liquid alloys from P.Anres, M.Gaune-Escard, 

             E.Hayer, J.P.Bros, J.Alloys Compds. 221 (1995) 143-152;  approximate phase 

             diagram and validity range for XPt > 0.7 only.

 

In-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2004; based on enthalpies of mixing for 

              liquid alloys from P.Anres, P.Fossati, M.Gaune-Escard, J.P.Bros,

              J.Alloys Compds. 266 (1998) 241-246, and comparisons with the In-Pt system,  

              approximate phase diagram and validity range for XRh > 0.8 only.

 

Ir-Ni:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath) assessment, 2005.

 

Ir-Os:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

             Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

             Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

             Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Ir-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             P.J. Spencer, June 1998. 

 

Ir-Pt:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath) 2005; amended by P.J.Spencer 2008.

 

Ir-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Ir-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Mg-Pd:  P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Mg-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

Mo-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008, based on R.Guerler, J.N. Pratt

               J. Alloys and Compounds 189 (1992) 97-100; M.H. Kaye, B.J. Lewis,

               W.T. Thompson, R.M.C. Kingston, Ontario, Canada, 2007.

 

 

Mo-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008, based on M.H. Kaye, B.J. Lewis,

                W.T. Thompson, R.M.C. Kingston, Ontario, Canada, 2007.

 

Mo-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

 

Mo-Tc :  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

 

Nb-Pd:   P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013, simplified description.

 

Ni-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ni-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

             Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

             Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

             Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Ni-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

Os-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

              Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

              Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

              Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Os-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

              Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

              Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

              Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Os-Re:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Os-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

 

Os-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Pb-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Pb-Pt:    P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013, simplified description.

 

Pb-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Pd-Pt:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              K. Hack, GTT-Technologies, 1995.

 

Pd-Re:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Pd-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2005.

 

Pd-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               P.J.Spencer, 1998; modified 2009.

 

Pd-Sb: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2004; experimental calorimetric data from    

             J.B.Darby, K.M.Myles, J.N.Pratt, Acta Met. 19 (1971) 7-14; approximate phase

             diagram and validity range for XPd > 0.7 only.

 

Pd-Si:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009, using an associate solution model for

             the liquid phase and incorporating enthalpies of formation from S.V. Meschel,

             O.J. Kleppa, J. Alloys and Compounds 274 (1998) 193-200.

 

 

Pd-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Pd-Tc:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008, based on M.H. Kaye, B.J. Lewis,

              W.T. Thompson, R.M.C. Kingston, Ontario, Canada, 2007.

 

Pd-Ti:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             K. Hack, GTT-Technologies,1996, based on J.Murray,

             Bull.Alloy Phase Diagrams 3 (1982) 329.

 

Pd-V:    P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013, simplified description.

 

Pd-Zn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free soldering       

              compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A. Zemanova, J.

              Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Pd-Zr:   P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013, simplified description.

 

Pt-Re:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Pt-Rh:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               K.T.Jacob, S.Priya, Y.Waseda, Met.Mat.Trans.A, 29A (1998) 1545-1550.

 

Pt-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               P.J.Spencer, 1998.

 

Pt-Sb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2004; estimated enthalpies of formation for 

             fcc, liquid and Pt5Sb, in conjunction with the phase diagram presented in The 

             Pauling File, Inorganic Materials Database and Design System, ed. P.Villars et

             al., ASM, 2004;  approximate phase diagram and validity range for XPt > 0.8

             only.

 

Pt-Si:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009, incorporating enthalpies of formation 

             from S.V. Meschel, O.J. Kleppa, J. Alloys and Compounds 280 (1998) 231-239.

 

Pt-Ta:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              P.J. Spencer, June 1998.

 

Pt-Tc:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

             Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

             Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

             Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Pt-Ti:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             K. Hack, GTT-Technologies, 1996, based on J.Murray, Bull.Alloy

             Phase Diagrams 3 (1982) 321.

 

Pt-W:   P.J. Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013, simplified description.

 

Pt-Zr:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2004;  experimental calorimetric values are

             available from Q.Guo, O.J.Kleppa, J.Alloys & Compounds 266 (1998) 224-229,

             and from  N.Selhaoui, J.C.Gachon, An.Fis., Ser.B 86 (1990) 57-59. Gibbs energy

             data have been published by P.J.Meschter, W.L.Worrell, Met.Trans. 8A (1977)

             503-09 and by H.J.Schaller, Ber. der Bunsenges. 80 (1976) 999-1002;

             approximate phase diagram and validity range for XPt > 0.7 only.

             (Even in the quoted validity range, the form of the ASM selected phase diagram

             could not be reproduced by the assessment. Nevertheless, the thermodynamic

             values calculated using the assessed data are thought to be reliable).

 

Re-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Re-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

               Enthalpies of formation were obtained using the method of X.-Q. Chen and R.

               Podloucky (CALPHAD 30 (2006) 266-269), which is based on a revised

               Miedema method in combination with ab initio results.

 

Rh-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

 

Rh-Sb: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2004; estimated enthalpies of formation for 

              the fcc, liquid and Rh2Sb phases, in conjunction with the uncertain phase

              boundaries shown in the ASM selected phase diagram. However, the

              solidus/liquidus curves are assumed here to be of similar form to those in the

              Pt-Sb system; approximate phase diagram and validity range for

              XRh > 0.6only.

 

Rh-Si:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

             The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009, incorporating enthalpies of formation 

             from S.V. Meschel, O.J. Kleppa, J. Alloys and Compounds 274 (1998) 193-200.

 

Rh-Sn: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2004; estimated enthalpies of formation for 

              the fcc, liquid and Rh2Sn phases, in conjunction with the uncertain phase

              boundaries shown in the ASM selected phase diagram;  approximate phase

              diagram and validity range for XRh > 0.6only.

 

Rh-Tc:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

 

Rh-Zr: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2004; The phase diagram used as basis for 

              the assessment is due to D.Aria, J.P.Abriata, J.Phase Equilib. 14 (1993) 110-117.

              The enthalpies of formation of the compounds Rh3Zr, RhZr and RhZr2 has been 

              determined from high temperature calorimeter studies by J.L.Jorda, J.C.Gachon,

              J.Charles, J.Hertz, J.Thermal Analysis 34 (1988) 551-557, and that of RhZr by

              L.Topor, O.J.Kleppa, J.Less-Common Metals 155 (1989) 61-73 and by Q.Guo, 

              O.J.Kleppa, J.Alloys & Compounds 266 (1998) 224-229;  approximate phase

              diagram and validity range for XRh > 0.7only.

 

Ru-Si:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

              Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

Ru-Tc:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

               The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

 

Ru-Zr:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                Thermodata (Grenoble), 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ternary Systems

 

 

Ag-Al-Au:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    The calculated isothermal section at 500oC incorporates ternary parameters

                    for the Al2Au phase and gives good agreement with A. Prince,

                    G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans,  Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The

                    Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp. 2-3. Calculations for other

                    temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Ag-Al-Bi:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                   The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                   The calculated isothermal section at 870oC incorporates ternary parameters

                   for the liquid phase and gives good agreement with G. Petzow,

                   G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.3, 

                   (1990), pp. 3-4. Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Ag-Al-In:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                   The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                   The calculated partial isothermal section at 650oC and the calculated liquidus

                   projection incorporate ternary parameters for the bcc phase and give

                   satisfactory agreement with G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys,

                   VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.3, (1990), pp. 25-31. Calculations

                   for other temperatures may be less reliable.

 

Ag-Al-Mg:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Thermodynamic values have been derived for the AgAlMg phase and the

                     calculated section Ag0.5Mg0.5-Al incorporates ternary parameters for the

                     liquid, bcc and fcc phases to give reasonable agreement with G. Petzow,

                     G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.3, 

                     (1990), pp.33-42.

                    

Ag-Al-Pb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Ternary parameters for the liquid phase have been derived to give good

                    agreement with the isothermal section at 1100oC and reasonable agreement

                    with the Ag-Ag0.633Al0.36Pb0.007 section as presented by G. Petzow,

                    G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.3, 

                    (1990), pp. 59-61.

                    .

Ag-Al-Si:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Thermodynamic values have been derived for the Ag7Al2Si phase so as to

                    give good agreement with the 500oC isothermal section reported in

                    G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft,

                    Weinheim, Vol.3, (1990), pp. 71-73. Calculations for other temperatures

                    may be unreliable.

 

Ag-Al-Sn:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc and hcp phases to

                    give good agreement with the liquidus projection and the 25oC isothermal

                    section presented by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH

                    Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.3, (1990), pp. 74-79. 

 

Ag-Al-Ti:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    The solubility of Ag In Al3Ti has been described and ternary parameters

                    have been derived for the liquid and bcc phases to give good general

                    agreement with isothermal sections between 800 and 1100 oC presented by

                    G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft,

                    Weinheim, Vol.3, (1990), pp. 82-87.

 

Ag-Al-Zn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    The calculated liquidus projection incorporates ternary parameters for the fcc

                    phase to give good agreement with G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys,

                    VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.3, (1990), pp. 89-95.

 

Ag-Au-Bi:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Au-Co:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to

                     give good agreement with the liquidus projection reported by A. Prince,

                     G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans,  Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The

                     Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp. 5-7.

 

Ag-Au-Cu:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid and fcc phases to

                     give good agreement with the isothermal sections between 300 and 1000 oC,

                     and the liquidus projection reported by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans,  

                     Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London,

                     (1990) pp. 7-42.

 

Ag-Au-Ge:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to

                     give good agreement with the phase equilibria between 400 and 

                     1000 oC, and with the liquidus projection reported by G. Petzow,

                     G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.1,

                     (1988), pp. 178-183.

 

Ag-Au-Ni:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to

                     give good agreement with the liquidus projection reported by A. Prince,

                     G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The

                     Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp. 44-48.

 

Ag-Au-Pb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters for the liquid phase have been obtained from the

                     experimental results of S. Hassam and A. Gheribi, Thermochimica Acta

                     464 (2007) 1-6, who measured enthalpies of mixing of liquid alloys at

                     700 oC. The calculated liquidus projection is in good agreement with that

                     reported by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of

                     Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp. 47-52.

 

Ag-Au-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Calculated sections and the calculated liquidus projection (no ternary

                     parameters) are in very good agreement with those reported by G. Petzow,

                     G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.1,

                     (1988), pp. 195-202.

 

Ag-Au-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Calculated sections and the calculated liquidus projection (no ternary

                     parameters) are in very good general agreement with those reported by

                     G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft,

                     Weinheim, Vol.1, (1988), pp. 203-213.

 

Ag-Au-Sb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Au-Si:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to

                     give good agreement with the calorimetric results of S. Hassam and

                     M. Gaune-Escard, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87 (1983) 785-792, and

                     with the phase equilibria between 300 and 1000 oC, and the liquidus

                     projection reported by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH

                     Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.1, (1988), pp. 224-238. The assessment

                     is also in good agreement with that presented by J. Wang, H. Liu, L. Liu,

                     Z. Jin, Trans. Non-ferrous Met. Soc. China, 17 (2007) 1405-1411.

 

Ag-Au-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give good

                     agreement with the calorimetric results of Bros et al. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys.

                     Chem. 88 (1984) 663; Met. Trans. 19A (1988) 2075. Enthalpies of mixing

                     reported by Z. Li, M. Dallegri, S. Knott, J. Alloys and Compounds 453

                     (2008) 442-447 are slightly more exothermic. In addition, ternary

                     parameters derived for the fcc and hcp phases allow the phase equilibria

                     between 300 and 500oC, and the liquidus projection reported by G. Petzow,

                     G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.1,

                     (1988), pp. 239-249 to be reproduced well. The present assessment of the

                     system is in close general agreement with that presented by J. Wang, H. Liu,

                     L. Liu, Z. Jin, CALPHAD 31 (2007) 545-552.

 

Ag-Au-Zn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid and fcc phases based on

                     very limited experimental information. The liquidus surface calculated using

                     these parameters should be viewed as providing qualitative rather than

                     quantitative information.

 

Ag-Bi-Cu:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give reasonable

                    agreement with the liquidus reported by S. Liu, W. Sun, Acta Metallurgica

                    Sinica 2B (1989) 151-152.

 

Ag-Bi-Pb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Good agreement of isothermal sections at 127 oC and 227 oC and of the

                    liquidus projection reported by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys,

                    VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.1, (1988), pp. 299-304 has been

                    achieved without use of ternary parameters.

 

Ag-Bi-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Bi-Zn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Satisfactory agreement of the isothermal section at 25 oC, the Ag-Bi.5Zn.5

                    section, and the liquidus projection reported by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg,

                    Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.1, (1988),

                    pp. 335-340 has been achieved without use of ternary parameters.

 

Ag-Co-Pd:  P.J.Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Ag-Cr-Pd:  P.J.Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Ag-Cu-Fe:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Calculations without use of ternary parameters give good agreement with the

                    isothermal section at 1207 oC reported by M. Arita, M. Tanaka, K.S. Goto,

                    M. Someno, Met. Trans. 12A (1981) 497-504, and with the section at

                    1550 oC presented by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH

                    Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.1, (1988), 557-562.

 

Ag-Cu-Ge:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid and fcc phases to give

                     satisfactory agreement with the isothermal section at 500 oC and the liquidus

                     reported by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlags-

                     gesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.1, (1988), 563-567.

 

Ag-Cu-In:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Cu-Mg:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                      The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                      Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid, bcc and hcp phases to

                      allow comparison of calculated phase equilibria with the isothermal section

                      at 400 oC and the Mg-rich liquidus reported by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg,

                      Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.1, (1988), 585-

                      593. The agreement is moderate because the latter reference is not

                      consistent with presently accepted binary phase diagram information.

 

Ag-Cu-Mn:  P.J.Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Ag-Cu-Ni:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Cu-Pb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Cu-Sb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give

                     reasonable agreement with the liquidus reported by G. Petzow,

                     G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.2,

                     (1988), 29-30.

 

Ag-Cu-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Cu-Ti:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid and AgTi2 phases to

                     give satisfactory agreement with the isothermal sections between 700 and

                    1300 oC, and the liquidus projection reported by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg,

                    Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.2, (1988), 55-59.

 

Ag-Cu-Zn:  The assessment is valid for Zn concentrations from 0 to 50 at.% only.

                     The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     The calculated isothermal sections between room temperature and 600oC,

                     and the calculated liquidus, incorporating derived ternary parameters for the

                     liquid phase, are in good agreement  with the corresponding figures

                     presented by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlags-

                     gesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.2, (1988), 60-68. Enthalpies of mixing for

                     liquid alloys at 800 oC are also in satisfactory agreement with the

                     calorimetric measurements of V.T. Witusiewicz, U. Hecht, S. Rex,

                     F. Sommer, J. Alloys and Compounds 337 (2002) 189-201.

 

Ag-Fe-Mn:  P.J.Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Ag-Fe-Ni:    P.J.Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Ag-Fe-Pd:    P.J.Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Ag-Fe-Si:    The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give good       

                     agreement with the 1550oC isothermal section and the Ag0.341Fe0.659-Si

                     section as reported by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH

                     Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.2, (1988), 118-122.

 

Ag-Ge-Si:    The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     Calculations of isothermal sections up to 800oC, selected isopleths, and the

                     ternary liquidus projection, without use of ternary parameters, give very

                     good agreement with the corresponding figures presented by G. Petzow,

                     G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.2,

                     (1988), 211-221.

 

Ag-In-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008. The assessment is

                    based on experimental results from A. Zemanova, O. Semenova,

A.     Kroupa, J. Vrestal, K. Chandrasekaran, K.W. Richter, H. Ipser,

Intermetallics 15 (2007) 77-84.

 

Ag-In-Sb:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give good       

                    agreement with the Ag0.718In0.141Sb0.141-In0.5Sb0.5 section reported by

                    G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft,

                    Weinheim, Vol.2, (1988), 306-307.

 

Ag-In-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Ag-Ir-Pd:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    No ternary parameters are required to give excellent agreement with the

                    isothermal section at 1000oC presented by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary

                    Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.2, (1988), 326-327.

 

Ag-Mg-Zn: The assessment is valid for Ag concentrations greater than 50 at.% only                    

                     The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to give good       

                     agreement with the 450 and 650oC isothermal sections reported by

                     G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft,

                     Weinheim, Vol.2, (1988), 379-386.

 

Ag-Ni-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008. The assessed data

                    base strongly on the experimental results from C. Schmetterer, H. Flandorfer,

                    H. Ipser, Acta Materialia 56 (2008) 155-164.

 

Ag-Pb-Sb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Good agreement with vertical sections at constant Ag content reported by

B.Blumenthal, Trans. AIME 156 (1944) 240-252, and with the partial

liquidus projection presented by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary

                    Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.2, (1988), 443-445, has

                    been achieved without use of ternary parameters.

 

Ag-Pb-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Good agreement with the isothermal section at 20oC reported by

A.     Boettcher, G.Haase, R. Thun, Z. fuer Metallkunde 46 (1955) 386-400,

and with the partial Pb-rich liquidus projection presented by  A. Prince,

D.S. Evans, J.I. McLeod, Publication Order 91638, 1989, has been achieved without use of ternary parameters.

 

Ag-Pb-Zn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give good

                    agreement with the liquidus projection and the Ag-Pb0.24Zn.76 section

reported by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlags-gesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.2, (1988), 478-484.

 

Ag-Pd-Pt:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give good

                    agreement with the liquidus projection reported by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg,

                    Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlags-gesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.2, (1988),

                    485-487.

 

Ag-Pd-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     No ternary parameters are required to give satisfactory agreement with the                                 

                     isothermal section at 25oC reported by A.A. Rudnitskii, A.N. Khotinskaya,

                     K.S. Duplik, Zhur. Fiz. Khim. 6 (1961) 830-836. The present data give

                     better agreement with the presently accepted binary phase diagrams.

 

 Ag-Pd-Ru: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     No ternary parameters are required to calculate a similar isothermal section

                     to that reported by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlags-

                     gesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.2, (1988), 489-490. However, the 2000oC

                     temperature given in that reference is thought to be erroneous and should

                     probably be 20oC. The phase equilibria presented are impossible for the

                     higher temperature. The present data also give better agreement with the

                     presently accepted binary phase diagrams.

 

Ag-Pd-Sn: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                   The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                   Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give good

                   agreement with the calorimetric measurements made by C. Luef, A. Paul,

                   H. Flandorfer, A. Kodentsov, H. Ipser, J. Alloys and Compounds 391 (2005)

                   67-76. The liquidus projection has been calculated assuming negligible

                   solubility of Ag in the Pd-Sn compounds.

 

Ag-Pd-Ti:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     The isothermal section at 700oC has been calculated without use of ternary

                     parameters, assuming negligible solubility of Ag in the Pd-Ti compounds

                     and the absence of any ternary phases. The calculated section is in

                     reasonable agreement with the partial section reported by N.V. Ageeva,                        

                     Diagrammy Sostoyaniya Metallicheskikh Sistem, ed. N.V. Ageeva, Viniti,

                     Moscow, Vol. 21 (1975) pp. 92-93.

 

Ag-Sb-Sn: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                   The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009, and combines the experimental

                   phase diagram studies and ternary parameters reported by Sinn-Wenn Chen et

                   al., Met. Mat. Trans. 39A (2008) 3191-3198; 39A (2008) 3199-3209, with

                   assessed data for the binary systems from the SGTE Solution Database. The

                   calculated isothermal section at 250oC and the calculated liquidus, are in              

                   good agreement with experimental observations.

                  

Ag-Sn-Zn: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                   The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009, based largely on the experimental

                   phase diagram studies due to Vassilev et al., J. Alloys and Compounds 327

                   (2001) 285-291; 334 (2002) 182-186, and to Jao et al., Intermetallics 16

                   (2008) 463-469, and to the emf measurements of Karlhuber et al., J. Non-

                   Crystalline Solids 205-207 (1996) 421-424. Calculated isothermal sections

                   and thermodynamic properties are in very good agreement with the

                   experimental information.

 

Al-As-Au:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    The calculated isothermal section at 25oC incorporates no ternary parameters

                    and is in agreement with the figure reported by J. Kingbell, R. Schmid-

                    Fetzer, CALPHAD 13 (1989) 367-388.

 

Al-Au-Si:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                   The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                   The calculated isothermal section at 1100oC incorporates ternary parameters

                   for the liquid phase and gives moderate agreement with G. Petzow,

                   G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.3, 

                   (1990), pp. 128-129. Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Al-Au-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    The calculated Al2Au-Sn section incorporates ternary parameters

                    for the liquid phase and gives good agreement with G. Petzow,

                   G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.3, 

                   (1990), pp. 130-134. Calculations for other compositions may be unreliable.

 

Al-Au-Ti:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                   The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                   No attempt has been made to model solubility of 3rd elements in binary

                   compounds, but the assessment incorporates ternary parameters for the fcc

                   phase and derived data for the AlAuTi and AlAu2Ti phases, to enable

                   calculation of an isothermal section at 500oC, which is in modest agreement

                   with that presented by G. Petzow, G. Effenberg, Ternary Alloys, VCH

                   Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Vol.3, (1990), pp. 135-136. Calculations for

                   other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Al-Cr-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is based largely on the work of

                    R. Süss, A. Watson, L.A. Cornish, D.N. Compton, J. Alloys and Compounds

                    October 2008, in press. However, in view of the uncertainty in experimental

                    information, only the BCC_B2 phase in the Al-Ru system has been modeled

                    here with a range of stoichiometry and the extension of this phase into the

                    ternary has been modified from that presented in the publication. Calculated

                    isothermal sections at 600 and 1000oC are in good agreement with

                    experimental phase diagram investigations.

 

Au-Bi-Sb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008. The assessment is

                    based largely on the experimental results from D. Manasijevic, D. Minic,

                    D. Zivkovic, Z. Zivkovic, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69 (2008) 847-851.

 

Au-Bi-Si:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                   The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                   Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give calculated

                   phase equilibria which are in modest agreement with the experimental

                   liquidus and isopleth sections reported by B. Legendre, C. Hancheng,

                   Bull. Soc. Chim. de France (1) (1989) 53-57.

 

Au-Bi-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                   The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                   No ternary parameters are required to achieve good agreement with the

                   liquidus, isothermal and isopleth sections presented by A. Prince,

                   G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The

                   Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp. 168-175.

 

Au-Co-Cu:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid and fcc phases to give                           

                     calculated phase equilibria which are in good agreement with the liquidus, 

                     isothermal and isopleth sections presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor,

                     D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of

                     Metals, London, (1990) pp. 203-206.

 

Au-Co-Ni:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to give a calculated

                     isothermal section at 900oC which is in very good agreement with that

                     presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of

                    Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp. 207-209.

                         

Au-Co-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to give calculated

                     phase equilibria which, in view of the discrepancies in the experimental

                     information, are in satisfactory agreement with the liquidus, isothermal,

                     and isopleth sections presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans,

                     Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London,

                     (1990) pp. 210-215.

 

Au-Cu-Ni:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid and fcc phases to give

                    calculated phase equilibria which are in good agreement with the liquidus,

                    isothermal, and isopleth sections presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S.

                    Evans, Phase Diagrams of  Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals,

                    London, (1990) pp. 226-234.

 

Au-Cu-Pb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give a

                    calculated liquidus in good agreement with that presented by A. Prince,

                    G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of  Ternary Gold Alloys, The

                    Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp. 233-234.

 

Au-Cu-Sn: The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008, based largely on the calorimetric

                    measurements of enthalpies of mixing for liquid alloys carried out by

                    S. Knott, Z. Li, A. Mikula, Thermochimica Acta 470 (2008) 12-17. The

                    ternary parameters derived by these authors for the liquid phase have been

                    incorporated in calculations of the liquidus projection for the system. The

                    assumption has been made that there is negligible solubility of 3rd elements

                    in binary compound phases.

 

Au-Fe-Ni:    P.J.Spencer, The Spencer Group 2013.

 

Au-Ge-Si:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     No ternary parameters are required to calculate the liquidus projection and

                     isopleth sections in very good agreement with those presented by A. Prince,

                     G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of  Ternary Gold Alloys, The

                     Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp. 274-276.

 

Au-In-Pb:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to give a

                    calculated liquidus and isopleth sections in good agreement with those

                    presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of  

                    Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp. 288-295.

                    The assumption has been made that there is negligible solubility of 3rd

                    elements in binary compound phases.

 

Au-In-Sb:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Au-In-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008. This is strongly

                    based on the work of G.Cacciamani, G. Borzone, A. Watson, CALPHAD

                    33 (2009) 17-22; 33 (2009) 100-108.

 

Au-Ir-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    No ternary parameters are required to calculate isothermal sections in very

                    good agreement with those presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S.

                    Evans, Phase Diagrams of  Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals,

                    London, (1990) pp. 303-307.

 

Au-Ir-Pt:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    No ternary parameters are required to calculate the 1100oC isothermal

                    section in good agreement with that presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor,

                    D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of  Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of

                    Metals, London, (1990) p. 308.

 

Au-Mo-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid and fcc phases to give

                     calculated isothermal sections at 1200 and 1450oC which can be compared

                     with the corresponding figures presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor,

                     D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of  Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of

                     Metals, London, (1990) pp.314-317. Because divergent information has

                     been used for the Mo-Pd phase diagram, agreement between the two sets of

                     figures is only modest.

 

Au-Ni-Pd:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to allow calculation                     

                     of isopleth sections and a liquidus projection which can be compared with

                     those reported by A.T. Grigor’ev et al. Zhur. Neorg. Khim. 7 (1962) 570-

                     573 and by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of 

                     Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp.320-323,

                     respectively. Because the published phase equilibria are not fully consistent

                     with more recently accepted binary phase diagram information, agreement

                     between the different sets of figures is only modest.

 

Au-Ni-Pt:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to allow calculation                     

                    of isothermal sections which are in very good agreement with those

                    presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of 

                    Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp.321-331.

 

Au-Ni-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    COST 531 Lead-Free Solders, Atlas of phase diagrams for lead-free 

                    soldering compiled by A.T. Dinsdale, A.Watson, A. Kroupa, J. Vrestal, A.

                    Zemanova, J. Vizdal, European Science Foundation, 2008.

 

Au-Pb-Si:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to allow

                    calculation of isothermal and isopleth sections which are in very good

                    agreement with those reported by B. Legendre, C. Hancheng, Bull. Soc.

                    Chim. De France, (1) (1988) pp.32-38, and by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor,

                    D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of

                    Metals, London, (1990) pp.348-355.

 

Au-Pb-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to allow

                    calculation of isothermal, isopleth and liquidus sections which are in

                    satisfactory agreement with those presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor,

                    D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of

                    Metals, London, (1990) pp.352-366.

 

Au-Pd-Pt:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     GTT (1997) and The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008, incorporating

                     present binary alloy data with ternary results for the fcc phase from

                     A. Forstreuter, based on Z. Metallkde, 46 (1955) Issue 7. There is very good

                     agreement with the isothermal and isopleth sections presented by A. Prince,

                     G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The

                     Institute of Metals, London, (1990) pp.372-374.

 

Au-Pd-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     No ternary parameters are required to calculate the isothermal section at                       

                    1000oC in very good agreement with A. Prince, G.V. Raynor,

                     D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of

                     Metals, London, (1990) pp 375-378.  Calculations for other temperatures

                     may be unreliable.

 

Au-Pd-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to allow

                     calculation of isothermal sections at 1200 and 1450oC, which are in very

                     good agreement with those presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor,

                     D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of

                     Metals, London, (1990) pp.378-380.

 

Au-Pt-Rh:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     No ternary parameters are required to calculate isothermal and isopleth

                     sections which are in very good agreement with A. Prince, G.V. Raynor,

                     D.S. Evans, Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of

                     Metals, London, (1990) pp 386-399. 

 

Au-Pt-Ru:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     No ternary parameters are required to calculate the isothermal section at

                     1100oC in satisfactory agreement with the suggested diagram presented by

A.     Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans, PhaseDiagrams of Ternary Gold

Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London, (1990) p. 398.  Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Au-Sb-Si:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to allow

                    calculation of isopleth and liquidus sections which are in satisfactory

                    agreement with those presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans,

                    Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London,

                    (1990) pp.403-411.

 

Au-Sb-Sn:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                    Data have been derived to describe the solubility of AuSn2 in AuSb2 and

                    thereby enable calculation of the isothermal section at 250oC. In view of

                    differences in the melting temperature of AuSn4, the agreement with the

                    corresponding figure presented by A. Prince, G.V. Raynor, D.S. Evans,

                    Phase Diagrams of Ternary Gold Alloys, The Institute of Metals, London,

                    (1990) pp 411-413, is reasonable.

 

Au-Si-Sn:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008, based on assessed data from the

                    present and SGTE work for the binary systems, and using ternary parameters

                    given by F.G. Meng, H.S. Liu, L.B. Liu, Z.P. Jin, J. Alloys and Compounds

                    431 (2007) 292-297, for the liquid phase. There is good agreement between

                    the present calculated phase equilibria and those reported by Meng et al.

                   

Co-Cu-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to allow

                     calculation of a liquidus section in good agreement with Y.A. Chang,

                     J.P. Neumann, A. Mikula, D. Goldberg, in Phase Diagrams and

                     Thermodynamic Properties of Ternary Copper-Metal Systems, Intl. Copper

                     Research Assocn., 1979, pp. 430-432, and isopleth sections in moderate

                     agreement with A.T. Grigor’ev, L.A. Panteleimonv, V.V. Kuprina,

                     L.I. Rybakova, Zhur. Neorg. Khim. 1 (1956) 1067-1073.

 

Co-Fe-Pd:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     No ternary parameters have been used in calculating a liquidus section in

                     reasonable agreement with that reported by V.V. Kuprina, A.T. Grigor’ev,

                     Zhur. Neorg. Khim. 4 (1959) 724-727. However, the compositional

                     variation of the published liquidus temperatures appears to be unrealistic in

                     several of the figures presented by the authors. The present assessment

                     should not be used in calculating ordering behaviour in solid alloys.

 

Co-Ni-Ru:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     No ternary parameters are required to calculate an isothermal section at

                     1000oC in very good agreement with that reported by N.V. Ageeva,

                     Diagrammy Sostoyaniya Metallicheskikh Sistem, Viniti, Moscow, Vol. 20,

                     (1974), pp. 218-219.

 

Cr-Ni-Pd:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid phase to enable

                     calculation of a liquidus projection in reasonable agreement with that

                     reported by D.W. Rhys, R.D. Berry, Metallurgia 66 (1962) 255-263.

 

Cr-Ni-Ru:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc, bcc, and hcp phases to      

                     allow calculation of the liquidus projection and isothermal sections at 1000

                     and 1250oC, which are in satisfactory agreement with those proposed by

                     S. Chakravorty, D.R.F. West, Mat. Sci. Technol. 1 (1985) 249-254.

 

Cu-Fe-Pd:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to enable calculation

                     of the liquidus surface in satisfactory agreement with that presented by

                     Y.A. Chang, J.P. Neumann, A. Mikula, D. Goldberg, in Phase Diagrams

                     and Thermodynamic Properties of Ternary Copper-Metal Systems, Intl.

                     Copper Research Assocn., 1979, pp. 486-489. The present assessment

                     should not be used in calculating ordering behaviour in solid alloys.

 

Cu-Ni-Pd:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to enable calculation

                     of the liquidus surface and isothermal sections of the system in good

                     agreement with those presented by D.W. Rhys, R.D. Berry, Metallurgia 66

                     (1962) 255-263, and E. Raub, O. Loebich, W. Plate, H. Krill, Z. Metallkd.

                     62 (1971) 826-829, respectively. The present assessment should not be used

                     in calculating ordering behaviour in solid alloys.

 

Cu-Ni-Pt:    The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to enable calculation

                     of the liquidus surface, which taking into account the more recent binary

                     phase diagram information used in the present work, is in good agreement

                     with that presented by Y.A. Chang, J.P. Neumann, A. Mikula, D. Goldberg,

                     in Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Properties of Ternary Copper-Metal

                     Systems, Intl. Copper Research Assocn., 1979, pp. 594-596. The present

                     assessment should not be used in calculating ordering behaviour in solid

                     alloys.

 

Cu-Ni-Ru:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2008.

                     No ternary parameters have been used in calculating the 500oC isothermal

                     section in good agreement with that reported by M.V. Raevskaya, I.E.

                     Yanson, A.L. Tatarkina, I.G. Sokolova, J. Less Common Metals 132 (1987)

                     237-241. Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Dy-Fe-Pt:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    No ternary parameters have been used in combining the present assessments

                    of the Dy-Pt and Fe-Pt systems with the SGTE assessed data for the Dy-Fe

                    system to calculate the isothermal section at 900oC. This is in very good

                    agreement with the experimental results of M. Lei, G. Zhengfei, Z. Xiaping,

                    C. Gang, Z. Bo, X. Chengfu, J. Alloys and Compounds 427 (2007) 130-133.

                    Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Fe-Ir-Os:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    The isothermal sections reported by K.C. Harikumar, V. Raghavan, J. Alloy

                    Phase Diagrams, India, 5 (1989) 201-220, are inconsistent with more recent

                    binary phase diagram information. In view of the relative simplicity of the

                    ternary system, isothermal sections at 650 and 900oC have been calculated

                    without use of ternary parameters, to illustrate the likely phase equilibria.

                    However, the calculated diagrams may be unreliable.

 

Fe-Ir-Ru:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    The isothermal sections reported by K.C. Harikumar, V. Raghavan, J. Alloy

                    Phase Diagrams, India, 5 (1989) 201-220, are inconsistent with more recent

                    binary phase diagram information. In view of the relative simplicity of the

                    ternary system, isothermal sections at 650 and 900oC have been calculated

                    without use of ternary parameters, to illustrate the likely phase equilibria.

                    However, the calculated diagrams may be unreliable.

 

Fe-Ni-Pd:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    The liquidus projection reported by L.A. Panteleimonov, N.A. Birun,

                    D.N. Gubieva, Zhur. Neorg. Khim. 5 (1960) 793-794, shows improbable

                    compositional variation of the isotherms. The general form of the liquidus is

                    nevertheless reproduced by the present calculations, without use of ternary

                    parameters. The present assessment should not be used in calculating

                    ordering behaviour in solid alloys.

 

Fe-Ni-Pt:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                   A simple model has been used to allow description of the ranges of existence

                   of the ordered (Fe,Ni)3Pt, (Fe,Ni)Pt, and (Fe,Ni)Pt3 phases in the ternary

                   system. The calculated phase equilibria at 600oC are in good agreement with

                   the diagram presented by G.T. Stevens, M. Hatherly, J.S. Bowles, J. Mat. Sci.

                   13 (1978) 499-504. Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Fe-Ni-Ru:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     No ternary parameters have been used in calculating the 1000oC isothermal                     

                     section in good agreement with that reported by A.S. Akopyan,

                     M.V. Raevskaya, I.G. Sokolova, E.M. Sokolovskaya, Vestn. Mosk. Univ.,

                     Khim. 29 (1974) 62-64. Calculations for other temperatures may be

                     unreliable.

 

Ir-Pd-Pt:    The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to enable calculation

                    of the 1400 oC isothermal section in very good agreement with that reported

                    by M.V. Raevskaya, V.V. Vasekin, I.G. Sokolova, J. Less Common Metals,

                    99 (1984) 137-142. Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Ir-Pd-Rh:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    Ternary parameters have been derived for the fcc phase to enable calculation

                    of the 1400 oC isothermal section in very good agreement with that reported

                    by M.V. Raevskaya, V.V. Vasekin, I.G. Sokolova, J. Less Common Metals,

                    99 (1984) 137-142. Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Ir-Pt-Ru:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                   The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                   No ternary parameters have been used in calculating the 1400oC isothermal                     

                   section in good agreement with that reported by M.V. Raevskaya,

                   V.V. Vasekin, Yu.I. Konobas, T.I. Chemieva, Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Khim.

                   39 (1984) 133-125. Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Ir-Rh-Ru:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                    The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                    No ternary parameters have been used in calculating the 1400oC isothermal                     

                    section in good agreement with that reported by M.V. Raevskaya,

                    V.V. Vasekin, I.G. Sokolova, J. Less Common Metals, 99 (1984) 137-142.

                    Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Mo-Ni-Pd:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                     The solubility of Pd in the MoNi4 and MoNi3 phases has been modelled to

                     enable calculation of the isothermal sections at 700 and 1000oC in good

                     agreement with those reported by M.V. Raevskaya, E.P. Lashuk,

                     E.F. Kazakova, I.G. Sokolova, J. Less Common Metals 99 (1984) L15-L16.

 

Mo-Pd-Rh:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from The Spencer Group

                      (Trumansburg), 2008, based strongly on the experimental phase diagram

                      results from J.O.A. Paschoal, H. Kleykamp, F. Thümmler, Z. Metallkunde

                      74 (1983) 652-664, from R. Gürler, J.N. Pratt, J. Nucl. Materials 186 (1991)

                      39, and the summarizing assessment work of M.H. Kaye, B.J. Lewis,

                      W.T. Thompson, J. Nucl. Materials 366 (2007) 8-27. The derived ternary

                      parameters for the fcc, bcc and hcp phases allow isothermal sections at

                      1100 and 1700oC be calculated, which are in good agreement with the

                      experimentally determined phase equilibria. 

 

Mo-Pd-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from The Spencer Group

                      (Trumansburg), 2008, based strongly on the experimental phase diagram

                      results from J.O.A. Paschoal, H. Kleykamp, F. Thümmler, Z. Metallkunde

                      74 (1983) 652-664, from K. Naito, T. Tsuji, T. Matsui, A. Date, J. Nucl.

                      Materials 154 (1988) 3-13, and and the summarizing assessment work of

                      M.H. Kaye, B.J. Lewis, W.T. Thompson, J. Nucl. Materials 366 (2007) 8-

                      27. The derived ternary parameters for the fcc, bcc and hcp phases allow

                      isothermal sections at 1450 and 1700oC be calculated, which are in good

                      agreement with the experimentally determined phase equilibria. 

 

Mo-Pd-Si:    The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from The Spencer Group

                      (Trumansburg), 2008. No ternary parameters have been used in calculating

                      the isothermal section at 700oC in good agreement with that reported by

                      M.V. Raevskaya, E.P. Lashuk, E.F. Kazakova, I.G. Sokolova, Vestn. Mosk.

                      Univ., Khim. 40 (1985) 69-73. Calculations for other temperatures may be

                      unreliable.

 

Mo-Pd-Tc:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from The Spencer Group

                      (Trumansburg), 2008. Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid,

                      fcc, bcc and hcp phases to allow calculation of isothermal sections at 1527

                      and 1727oC. The assessment work is based on the somewhat uncertain                       

                      phase equilibria proposed by H.R. Haines, P.E. Potter, M.H. Rand, in

                      Thermodynamics of Nuclear Materials, Proc. Symp. IAEA Vienna, 1980,

                      Vol.1 pp. 471-501. In view of the incomplete binary phase diagram

                      information available to those authors, calculations using the present

                      assessed data are thought to provide somewhat more reliable information.

                      However, calculations for temperatures outside the 1527-1727oC range may

                      well be unreliable.

         

Mo-Rh-Ru:  The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from The Spencer Group

                      (Trumansburg), 2008, based strongly on the experimental phase diagram

                      results from J.O.A. Paschoal, H. Kleykamp, F. Thümmler, Z. Metallkunde

                      74 (1983) 652-664, from A.E. Dwight, D.R. O’Boyle, J. Nucl. Materials

                      136 (1985) 280-283, and the summarizing assessment work of M.H. Kaye,

                      B.J. Lewis, W.T. Thompson, J. Nucl. Materials 366 (2007) 8-27. The

                      derived ternary parameters for the fcc, bcc and hcp phases allow calculation

                      of the isothermal section at 1700oC in good agreement with the 

                      experimentally determined phase equilibria.  Calculations for other

                      temperatures may be less reliable.

 

Mo-Rh-Tc:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from The Spencer Group

                      (Trumansburg), 2009. Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid

                      and bcc phases to allow calculation of isothermal sections at 1527 and

                     1927oC. The assessment work is based on the somewhat uncertain                       

                      phase equilibria proposed by H.R. Haines, P.E. Potter, M.H. Rand, in

                      Thermodynamics of Nuclear Materials, Proc. Symp. IAEA Vienna, 1980,

                      Vol.1 pp. 471-501. In view of the incomplete binary phase diagram

                      information available to those authors, calculations using the present

                      assessed data are thought to provide somewhat more reliable information.

                      However, calculations for temperatures outside the 1527-1927oC range may

                      well be unreliable.

 

Ni-Pd-Si:     The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                     The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                      Data have been derived for the compounds NiPd2Si and Ni18Pd7Si9 and

                      ternary parameters have been derived to describe the solution ranges of the

                      fcc, (Ni,Pd)3Si, (Ni,Pd)2Si, and (Ni,Pd)Si phases, to allow calculation of the

                      ternary section at 800oC in good agreement with that reported by

                      W. Wopersnow, K. Schubert, Z. Metallkde. 67 (1976) 807-810.

                      Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Pb-Pd-Sn:    The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from the 2008 Version of

                      the SGTE Solution Database.

 

Pd-Pt-Ru:    The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                      The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                      Ternary parameters have been derived for the hcp phase to allow

                      calculation of the isothermal section at 1400oC in good agreement with that

                      presented by M.V. Raevskaya, V.V. Vasekin, Yu.I. Konobas,

                      T.A. Chemieva, Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Khim. 39 (1984) 133-135.

                      Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

Pd-Pt-Sn:     The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                      The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                      Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid, fcc, (Pd,Pt)3Sn,

                      (Pd,Pt)2Sn, (Pd,Pt)3Sn2, (Pd,Pt)5Sn3, (Pd,Pt)Sn, and (Pd,Pt)Sn4 phases to

                      allow calculation of the isothermal sections at 400 and 1000oC in

                      reasonable agreement with those presented by K.L. Shelton,

                      P.A. Merewether, B.J. Skinner, Canadian Mineralogist 19 (1981) 599-605.

 

Pd-Pt-Ti:      The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                      GTT-Technologies (Herzogenrath), 2004.

                      Pseudo-binary mixtures (Pd,Pt)3Ti and (Pd,Pt)Ti have been introduced

                      because of identical crystallographic data for the binary compounds. Ideal

                      behaviour is assumed. The resulting calculated isothermal section at 1000oC

                      is provided with this assessment, but the calculated phase equilibria may

                      not be reliable.

 

Pd-Rh-Ru:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                      The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                      Ternary parameters have been derived for the liquid, fcc, and hcp phases to

                      enable calculation of the 1400 and 1700 oC isothermal sections in

                      reasonable agreement with the experimentally determined phase equilibria

                      reported by M.V. Raevskaya, V.V. Vasekin, I.G. Sokolova, J. Less

                      Common Metals, 99 (1984) 137-142, by J.O.A. Paschoal, H. Kleykamp,

                      F. Thümmler, Z. Metallkunde 74 (1983) 652-664 and in the summarizing

                      assessment work of M.H. Kaye, B.J. Lewis, W.T. Thompson, J. Nucl.

                      Materials 366 (2007) 8-27.  Calculations for other temperatures may be

                      unreliable.

 

Pt-Rh-Ru:   The thermodynamic assessment of the system is from

                      The Spencer Group (Trumansburg), 2009.

                      No ternary parameters are required to calculate the 1400 oC isothermal

                      section in good agreement with that reported by M.V. Raevskaya,

                      V.V. Vasekin, Yu.I. Konobas, T.A. Chemieva, Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Khim.

                      39 (1984) 133-135. Calculations for other temperatures may be unreliable.

 

 

 

 

 

Quaternary System

 

 

Au-Pd-Pt-Sn:   Quaternary parameters for the (Au,Pd,Pt)3Sn, (Au,Pd,Pt)Sn, and

                           (Au,Pd,Pt)Sn4 phases are from A. Forstreuter, private communication to

                           GTT-Technologies, 1997.